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Polymers and synthesis
Amino acids
Amino acids are the building blocks for two groups of biological molecules:
Proteins act as enzymes , hormones and antibodies, they transport substances such as oxygen, vitamins and minerals to cells in
the body.
Structural proteins such as collagen and keratin are responsible…

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Proton is transferred from OH bond to the NH2 bond making NH3+ and COO

The isoelectric point is the PH where there is no net electrical charge. The zwitterions exists at this PH. Each amino acid has a
different isoelectric point

At a more acidic PH than the isoelectric point:…

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bonds, for each amino acid linked a water molecule is formed. Proteins are polypeptides with generally more than 50 amino acids.

Hydrolysis of polypeptides
Acid hydrolysis
Polypeptides and proteins can be
hydrolysed using aqueous acid, water is
added to break up the peptide bond
and make its constituent amino acids.…

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Optical isomerism
Optical isomerism occurs when a carbon atom is attached to for different groups, this is know as a chiral carbon.
If a molecule has a chiral centre then a mirror Image is possible, they are non super imposable and are optical isomers (or enantimers)
Optical isomers are chemically…

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Condensation polymerisation
bond between a hydroxyl group on the diol and a carboxyl group on the dicarboxylic acid
ester link forms, water released

Uses: carpets, clothing, bedding

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Disadvantages: burn easily

Poly lactic acid is biodegradable

two types of polyamide:
1. two types of monomer
dicarboxylic acid and diamine group
2. one monomer containing both

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Condensation polymerisation
bond forms between a amine group and a carboxyl group
amide link forms and waters released

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Polyamides are used in clothing and protective equipment (Kevlar)

Addition polymerisation
addition polymers are made from one monomer only
there is only one product (the polymer)

Condensation polymers
the joining of monomers with the elimination of a small molecule (H2O or HCl)

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the monomers must have 2 functional groups

hydrolysis of polyesters
esters can be hydrolysed in either acidic or basic conditions
hydrolysed by hot aqueous NaOH or hot HCl (hot HCl is slower)

hydrolysis of polyamides
hydrolysed by hot NaOH
or hot HCl

degradeable polymers

biodegradable polymers have
chemical bonds that…

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Alternatively C=O bonds can be incorporated into the backbone of the molecule, the double bond absorbs the light energy and
breaks the polymer chain.

Chriality in pharmaceuticals
A chiral carbon is a carbon atom that has 4 different groups attached to it. Each chiral carbon has 2 stereo isomers. So…




these notes are really good.


Thank you =)

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