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F212 Biology Notes
Parasite ­ organisms that live in or on another living thing, harming their host, usually by
taking their nutrients. External parasites live on the host, e.g. head lice, and internal parasites
live inside the host, e.g. tapeworm.

Pathogens ­ pathogens are organisms that cause disease, taking nutrients…

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Antibodies consist of:

Four polypeptide chains held together by disulfide bridges

A constant region, which allows the antibody to attach to phagocytic cells and helps
in the process of phagocytosis

A variable region, which is complementary to a specific antigen

Hinge region, which allows some flexibility, so the branches can…

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Lymphocytes

T helper cells ­ release cytokines that stimulate the B cells to develop and
stimulate phagocytosis by the phagocytes

T killer cells ­ attack and kill infected body cells, by releasing hydrogen peroxide
(toxic) into the cells

T memory cells ­ give immunological memory

B cells ­ differentiate into…

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