OCR AS Classics: Ancient History - Spartan Chronology

The Spartan Chronology

The Ionian Revolt (499 Bc) to The Fall of Athens (404 Bc)

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  • Includes detailed aspects of events!
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  • Key knowledge for the exam!

A detailed chronology for the Spartan section of the OCR AS Classics: Ancient History course

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The Spartan Chronology
The Ionian Revolt (499 Bc) to The Defeat of Athens (404 Bc)
Persian Emperors
1. Darius I (522 ­ 486 Bc)
Wanted centralised authority around Susa and Ecbatana
1. Xerxes I (486 ­ 465 Bc)
Had to keep up to expectations after Darius' Expansion of the Empire
1. The Ionian Revolt (499 ­ 494 Bc)
Greek states on Ionian Coast rebel against Persia
Many were forcefully conscripted into the Persian army
Started on the island of Naxos in the Aegean Sea
1. Emperor Darius I sends an expedition to Greece (490 Bc)
Darius demanded Earth and water from Greek Poleis ­ Submission
Darius strikes against Greece ­ Mountains cause a problem
3. The Battle of Marathon (490 Bc)
20,000 Persian Troops
Spartans did not attend ­ Holy Festival (Apollo)
5. The Congress at Isthmus (481 Bc)
The Hellenic League is formed
Sparta is placed in control of all armies ­ Navy and Army
Done so to prevent a power struggle and conflict between Sparta and Athens
6. Athens grows in wealth due to Ionian silver (480 Bc)
Archon Thermistocles persuades Athens to develop a navy
7. Emperor Xerxes invades Greece (480 ­ 479 Bc)
Forces sent by sea and land
Force of 2 Million Persian soldiers ­ Herodotus
8. The Battle of Thermopylae (480 Bc) Herodotus
Three hundred Spartans lead by King Leonidas
Thousands of Greek soldiers from allied Poleis
· The Battle of Artemisium (480 Bc)
Large sea battle
Storm destroyed the Persian fleet
9. Xerxes arrives in Athens to find it evacuated ­ Burns it to the ground (480 Bc)
· The Battle of Salamis
Persians are tricked by messenger into a narrow area by sea
Spartan contingent involved ­ First Spartan naval action ever
Xerxes Leaves Greece ­ Leaves General Mardonius in charge
10. The Battle of Plataea (479 Bc)
Lead by Regent Pausanius
Created by Nicholas R. Welbrock ­ York College, United Kingdom

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Spartan (5000 soldiers) and Greek forces
Greek rivers poisoned ­ Retreated into mountains followed by Persians ­ Persians
attacked by archers
11. The battle of Mycale (479 Bc)
Lead by Archon Leotychides
Persian forces retreated to Mycale on the Ionian Coast
Greeks followed and defeated the Persians
First offensive pushing the Persians into Asia Minor
12.…read more

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Ionian city states in Asia Minor were given autonomy
2. Prohibited Persian Satraps being set up in the Aegean
3. Prohibited Persian ships in the Aegean Sea
4. Greek ships not to interfere with Persian trade in the Black Sea
18. Corinth encouraged a revolt in Potidea against Athens (442 Bc)
Corinth goes to war with Athens over Potidea
19. The Megarian Decree (432 Bc)
Athens declares Megara should be banned from the market ­ Common tactic used by
Athens.…read more

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Spartans led by King Agis II
Sparta fought to keep Tegea in allied hands ­ Tegea controlled the pass between the
Peloponnese and Laconia
Restored Spartan Mirage after Pylos ­ Sparta forced Argos to surrender
If the Spartans had lost they would have lost control over the Peloponnese
Plot to create a stable antiSpartan alliance in the Peloponnese was arranged by Alcibiades
(Athenian Nobleman)
Athens was split in two parties ­ 'Peace Party' (ProSpartan) ­ Led by Nicias, and the
'War Party' led by Alcibiades…read more


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