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Cont
ent
s
Alcohols
Physical Properties
The Production of Ethanol
Uses of Alcohols
Classification of Alcohols
Combustion of Alcohols
Oxidation of Alcohols
Primary Alcohols
Secondary Alcohols
Tertiary Alcohols
Summery
Immediate Distillation:
Reflux:
Esterification
Dehydration of Alcohols
Percentage Yield
Atom Economy
Halogenoalkanes
Naming
Isomerism
Multiple Halogens in an Alkane
Classification
Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions of Halogenoalkanes
Mechanism
Hydrolysis of Halogenoalkanes
Effect of the Halogen on the Rate of Hydrolysis
Uses of Halogenoalkanes
Problems with CFCs
The Ozone Layer (Module 4)
Formation of Ozone
Maintaining Ozone Concentration
Removal…read more

Page 3

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Al
cohol
s
Al
cohols
are
a t
ype
of
compound
that
co ntai
n and
O H gr
oup.
They
all
f
oll
ow t
his
gener
al
formul
a:
C nH2n+1OH
Physi
cal
Proper
ti
es
Boi
li
ng Poi
nt:
Al
cohols
have hi
gh er
boi
li
ng point
s t
han t
heir
corr
esponding
alkanes
as t
hey
can
f
orm hydr
oge n
bond s.…read more

Page 4

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C6H12O6(
aq
) 2CH3CH2OH(
l)
+
2CO2(
g)
Compar
ison:
Process H ydr
ati
on
of
E t
hene Fer
ment
ati
on
C H =C H
2 2
Glucose
fr
om renewabl
e
Raw
Ma ter
ial From oil
a
plant
s
nonrenewa bl
e resour
ce
Q ual
it
y of
Product P ure I
mpur
e (
C O2 Produced)
Rate
of
R eact
ion F ast Slow
Energy
R equi
remen t
s H i
gh Low
Type of
Process Conti…read more

Page 5

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Cl
assi
fi
cat
ion
of
Alc
o hol
s
Ther
e ar
e t
hree
cl
asses
of
alcohol
s:
Cl
ass
St
ruct
ure Exampl
e Name
Pri
mar
y But
an1ol
Secondar
y But
an2ol
Ter
ti
ary 2met
hyl
but
an2ol
Th e
carb on t
ha t
i
s j
oined
to
the
O H gr
oup
is
onl
y bonded
to
one
other
car
bon
in
primary alcohols.…read more

Page 6

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Page 7

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Oxi
dat
ion
of
Alcohol
s
Pri
ma r
y and
secondary
a lcoh ol
s ar
e oxi
d i
sed
b y
mild
oxi
disi
ng agent
s such
as
pot
assium di
chromate
(V I)
.
Wh en
they
are
oxidi
sed the co l
our
cha nges
fr
om or
ange g r
een.
Tert
iar
y al
cohol
s ar
e not oxidised
b y
mild
oxi
d i
si
ng
agent
s.…read more

Page 8

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Compl
ete
O x
idat
ion:
Thi
s f
orms a
carboxy
li
c aci
d f
rom
a
pr
imary
alcohol
.
A
carboxyl
ic
aci
d has
the
fol
lowi
ng
st
ruct
ure:
To
name t
hem, add
"ani
oc
acid"
ont
o t
he
end
of
the al
kane
stem e.
g.
me t
hanoi
c
aci
d,
ethanoi
c aci
d et
c.…read more

Page 9

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Secondar
y Al
cohol
s
Thi
s f
orms a
ketone
from
a s
e condar
y
al
cohol.
A
ketone has
the
fol
lowi
ng
str
ucture:
To
name
them,
add "
one"
onto
the
end
of
t
he al
kane
stem e.
g.
propanone,
but
anone et
c.
There can be no ketone formed from methanol or ethanol, as they are only
primary alcohols.…read more

Page 10

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Ter
ti
ary
Alcohol
s
Ter
ti
ary
alcohol
s ar
e not
oxi
dised
by pot
assi
um
dichr
omat
e (
V I
)
as
thi
s
w oul
d
r
equir
e t
he breaki
ng of
a
C C bond.…read more

Comments

Rebecca Jackson


Good but would have liked to see some notes on combustion, formation and Hess' law

Naseem

Very Helpful notes...
Thanks for sharing !


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