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Page 1

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Module 2 Revision Notes




1

Page 2

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Cont
ent
s
Alcohols
Physical Properties
The Production of Ethanol
Uses of Alcohols
Classification of Alcohols
Combustion of Alcohols
Oxidation of Alcohols
Primary Alcohols
Secondary Alcohols
Tertiary Alcohols
Summery
Immediate Distillation:
Reflux:
Esterification
Dehydration of Alcohols
Percentage Yield
Atom Economy
Halogenoalkanes
Naming
Isomerism
Multiple Halogens in an Alkane
Classification
Nucleophilic…

Page 3

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Al
cohol
s

Al
cohols
are
a t
ype
of
compound
that
co ntai
n and
O H gr
oup.
They
all
f
oll
ow t
his
gener
al
formul
a:
C nH2n+1OH

Physi
cal
Proper
ti
es

Boi
li
ng Poi
nt:
Al
cohols
have hi
gh er
boi…

Page 4

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C6H12O6(
aq
) 2CH3CH2OH(
l)
+
2CO2(
g)

Compar
ison:

Process H ydr
ati
on
of
E t
hene Fer
ment
ati
on
C H =C H
2 2
Glucose
fr
om renewabl
e
Raw
Ma ter
ial From oil
a
plant
s
nonrenewa bl
e resour
ce
Q ual…

Page 5

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Cl
assi
fi
cat
ion
of
Alc
o hol
s

Ther
e ar
e t
hree
cl
asses
of
alcohol
s:

Cl
ass
St
ruct
ure Exampl
e Name


Pri
mar
y But
an1ol




Secondar
y But
an2ol




Ter
ti
ary 2met
hyl
but
an2ol




Th e
carb on t…

Page 6

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Secondar
y (
but
an2ol
) Pri
mar
y (
2 met
hyl
propan1ol
)
Combust
i
o n
of
Alcohol
s


Al
cohols
combust
i
n oxygen
to
for
m carbon
dioxi
de and
wat
er.
The
react
i
o n
is
exact
ly
the
same
as i
n…

Page 7

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Oxi
dat
ion
of
Alcohol
s

Pri
ma r
y and
secondary
a lcoh ol
s ar
e oxi
d i
sed
b y
mild
oxi
disi
ng agent
s such
as
pot
assium di
chromate
(V I)
.
Wh en
they
are
oxidi
sed the co l
our
cha…

Page 8

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Compl
ete
O x
idat
ion:

Thi
s f
orms a
carboxy
li
c aci
d f
rom
a
pr
imary
alcohol
.
A
carboxyl
ic
aci
d has
the
fol
lowi
ng
st
ruct
ure:




To
name t
hem, add
"ani
oc
acid"
ont
o t
he
end
of…

Page 9

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Secondar
y Al
cohol
s

Thi
s f
orms a
ketone
from
a s
e condar
y
al
cohol.

A
ketone has
the
fol
lowi
ng
str
ucture:




To
name
them,
add "
one"
onto
the
end
of
t
he al
kane
stem e.
g.
propanone,

but
anone et
c.…

Page 10

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Ter
ti
ary
Alcohol
s

Ter
ti
ary
alcohol
s ar
e not
oxi
dised
by pot
assi
um
dichr
omat
e (
V I
)
as
thi
s
w oul
d
r
equir
e t
he breaki
ng of
a
C C bond.

Summer
y

Al
dehyde Car
boxyl…

Comments

Rebecca Jackson


Good but would have liked to see some notes on combustion, formation and Hess' law

Naseem

Very Helpful notes...
Thanks for sharing !


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