OCR AS Chemistry Key Terms: Unit 1, Atoms and reactions

Full and comprehensive list of all key terms necessary for Unit 1, module 1 - Atoms and reactions for the OCR spec.

Taken, adapted and improved from the OCR textbook and my own personal notes. :)

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Key Definitions for AS ChemistryAtoms and ReactionsAmber Hornsby
Key Definitions for Unit 1 Chemistry
Atoms and reactions
Acid ­ a species that is a proton donor
Alkali ­ type of base that dissolves in water forming hydroxide ions (OH-)
Anhydrous ­ a substance that contains no water molecules.
Anion ­ negatively charged ion
Atomic (proton) number ­ the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Avogadro constant ­ is the number of atoms per mole of the carbon-12 isotope (6.02x10²³)
Base ­ a species that is a proton acceptor
Concentration ­ the amount of solute, in mol, dissolved per 1dm³ of solution.
Cation ­ positively charged ion
Empirical formula ­ simplest whole-number ratio of atoms of each element present in a compound
Hydrated ­ crystalline compound containing water molecules.
Ion ­ charged ion (covalently bonded) or group of atoms (a molecular ion)
Isotope ­ atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons.
Mass (nucleon) number ­ number of particles (protons and neutrons) in the nucleus
Molar mass ­ mass per mole of a substance
Molar volume ­ volume per mole of a gas, at RTP the mV is 24dm³
Mole ­ amount of any substance containing as many particles as there are carbon atoms in exactly 12g of
the carbon-12 isotope.
Molecule ­ small group of atoms held together by covalent bonds.
Molecular formula ­ the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule
Oxidation ­ loss of electrons or increase in oxidation number
Oxidation number ­ measure of the number of electrons that an atom used to bond with atoms of
another element
Oxidising agent ­ a reagent that oxidises (takes electron from) another species
Redox reaction ­ a reaction in which both reduction and oxidation takes place
Reducing agent ­ a reagent that reduces (adds electron to) another species
Reduction ­ gain of electrons or decrease in oxidation number
Relative atomic mass ­ weighted mean mass of an atom of an element compared with one-twelfth of
the mass of an atom of carbon-12
Relative formula mass ­ weighted mean mass of a formula unit compared with one-twelfth of the mass
of an atom of carbon-12
Relative isotopic mass ­ mass of an atom of an isotope compared with one-twelfth of the mass of an
atom of carbon-12
Relative molecular mass ­ weighted mean mass of a molecule compared with one twelfth of the mass
of a carbon-12 atom
Salt ­ a chemical compound formed when a H+ ion from an acid has been replaced by a metal ion or
another positive ion.
Species ­ any type of particle that takes place in a chemical reaction.
Standard solution ­ solution of a known concentration
Stoichiometry - the molar relationship between the relative quantities of substances taking part on a
reaction
Water of crystallisation - water molecules that form an essential part of the crystalline structure of a
compound

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