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Dipoles and Intermolecular Bonds
If a molecular substance contains dipoles, they can attract each other.

All intermolecular bonds arise from the attractive forces between dipoles.

There are three kinds of bond:

Instantaneous-Induced Where two or more Occurs between the
permanent dipoles attract permanent dipoles in HCl
one another


Page 2

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Instantaneous dipole ­ Induced dipole bonds
These are the weakest type of intermolecular bonding.

They act between all molecules.

This is because instantaneous dipoles can arise in molecules that already have a permanent

You notice them more clearly in substances such as the noble gases and the alkanes,

Page 3

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Permanent dipole ­ Permanent dipole bonds
An example of a polar molecule would be H2O.

Oxygen is much more electronegative than hydrogen, so the O-H bond is polar.

One side of the molecule is positive, the other is negative.

The water molecule has a dipole with the positive charge centred…

Page 4

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Dipole ­ Dipole bonds
Molecular dipoles are liquid at room temperature, and in the liquid phase the molecules
are constantly moving and tumbling around.

Sometimes the negative end of one molecule will be lined up with the positive end of
another, making them attract, but often there will be two…


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