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UNIT 2 ­ Module 3
Ecosystems and Sustainability…read more

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Module Contents
· 1- Ecosystems
· 2- Understanding Energy Transfer
· 3- Manipulating Energy Transfer
· 4- Succession
· 5- Studying Ecosystems
· 6- Decomposers and recycling
· 7- What Affects Population Size?
· 8- Competition
· 9- Sustainable Management
· 10-Conservation
· 11- Humans and the Galapagos…read more

Slide 3

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2.3.1 Ecosystems
· ECOSYSTEM: All the living organisms and all the
non-living components in a specific habitat, and
their interactions.
The components of an ecosystem include:
· Habitat: The place where an organism lives
· Population: All of the organisms of one species,
who live in the same place at the same time, and
can breed together.
· Community: All the populations of different
species who live in the same place at the same
time, and can interact with each other.…read more

Slide 4

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· The role that each species plays in an
ecosystem is called its niche : how and what it
feeds on, what it excretes, how it reproduces,
position in the food chain, etc.
· It is impossible for two species to occupy
exactly the same niche in the same
· E.g. Red squirrels and Grey squirrels- similar
niche and so one outcompeted the other
(grey- could eat non-ripe acorns)…read more

Slide 5

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· Organisms in an ecosystem can affect each
other through:
· Biotic Factors:- Food supply, predation and
· Abiotic Factors:- (non living components) light
intensity, pH, temperature and soil type.
NB. Ecosystems do not have clear edges, you
cannot define the exact area of an ecosystem…read more

Slide 6

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· Ecosystems are dynamic, they are constantly
changing and changes in one area can affect
changes in another
· If a predator's population size increases, then the
population size of its prey will go down.
· The nitrogen levels in soil can affect the
population sizes of plants growing there. Nitrogen
fixing plants would grow successfully in nitrogen-
deficient soil, but they would affect the
environment by increasing nitrogen levels in the
soil which would then help other plants to grow
there too.…read more

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Great content but could of been completed, the specific part I was looking for has not been done but the other stuff helped me loads. Thanks x

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