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Absolutism & Relativism
o Situation ethics

Utilitarianism (teleological )
Mill (Rule)
o "better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied"
o avoidance of pain ahead of self pleasure ­ general rules need to be enforced to
bring this about
o higher pleasures ­ reading, discussing, learning,…

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3 ­ educate
4 ­ live peacefully in society
5 ­ worship God
o Secondary precepts ­ have to be interpreted in the context
o Evaluation
Based on reason. Gives good guidance. Straightforward.
Inflexible. Based on perceived sense of purpose. Have to believe in God.
Ignores individual situations. Based that…

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o Communication
o Self-awareness
Islam ­ ensoulment at 16 weeks
Definitions for start of life
o Potentiality ­ potential to be human is human
o Conception ­ Catholicism uses this

o Primitive streak ­ 14th day, first signs of cells becoming specialised
o Viability ­ 20-24 weeks
o Consciousness -…

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o Analogy of the cave
Cave ­ our world
Chains ­ human desires that restrict from finding truth
Shadows ­ copy of forms
Fire ­ minimal form of good on this world
Puppets ­ copies from WoF
Difficult ascent ­ hard to get to truth
Blinded ­ hard to see…

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o Bible demonstrates goodness of god
The Ten Commandments and laws ­ teaches how to act good
Good behaviour is rewarded e.g. Abraham
Goodness may not be understood by humans e.g. Job
o Euthyphro dilemma
God as judge/lawgiver
o God as parent ­ laying down law so show boundaries and…

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necessary only applies to an analytic statement
questioned need for sufficient reason
how can an external God interact with universe?
can't apply same logic to everything
necessary being as one who "must and cannot not exist", nothing
is contingent
principle of sufficient reason (Leibniz) ­ must be a sufficient,…

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o Moral evil ­ humans purposely disobeying God
Dostoyevsky ­ "so much evil and suffering you can't justify creating it"
Evil existed before humans (science)
Only applicable to believers ­ salvation to few who accept Jesus
Scheiermacher ­ "either world not made perfect or God created evil"
Darwinism ­ not…


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