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SPREAD OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS

July 1945 alamogordo desert test new mexico first ever atomic bomb
Atomic bomb Hiroshima Nagasaki August 1945
August 1949 USSR successful test for atomic bomb
October 1952 UK tests first atomic bomb
November 1952 US thermonuclear (hydrogen) bomb
August 1953 USSR thermonuclear bomb
November 1953 British…

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April 1958 UK Nuclear weapon test
1959 US Titan and Atlas ICBMs
1959 US Minuteman missile
1960 US Polaris subs
1961 USSR Multi-megaton bomb
March 1961 USSR Anti-ballistic missile test
December 1962 US Anti-ballistic missile test
1962 US Protected launching sites for
minuteman rockets
Oct. 1964 France First a-bomb test…

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STRATEGIES

On the whole USSR held advantage in tanks and guns and Americans in tactical nuclear weapons
At the time Soviet invasion of Western Europe feared greatly
Warsaw Pact plans that have come to light were offensive: assault by some 60 divisions
envisaged reaching the French border in 13-15 days…

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1959 set up Rocket Strategic Forces though only four long-range missiles ready for use
Nuclear bluff, but understood nuclear weapons meant the two would destroy one another
Soviets effectively adopted strategy of deterrence
1962 Marshal Sokolovsky claimed Soviets would at once carry out nuclear strikes on all kinds of
targets…

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June 1979 SALT II US, USSR Limit of 2400 on all types
If one side built up to the limit
of strategic delivery of 1200 MIRVs, it could only
vehicles on each side, tohave only 120 bombers
be reduced to 2250 by Six months later USSR
1981, within these invaded…

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Principle of deterrence debate:
o Possibility of surprise first strike
o Capacity for retaliatory second strike
o Question of survival by means of nuclear shelters and civil defence
o Long-term consequences of nuclear war
In a situation where everything depended on the success of deterrence, development of
effective defence could…

Page 7

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Nuclear war couldn't be fought without destroying states which took part in it
Gave US and USSR much in common--neither wanted to wage nuclear war
Before nuclear age, a situation in Europe where two alliances confronted one another across
sensitive frontiers and at any time an incident might have escalated…

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