Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

Types of Depression
Unipolar (major depressive disorder) - Only experience symptoms of depression
Bipolar (manic depression) - Involves mood swings between depression and mania
Clinical Characteristics of depression
Psychological symptoms of depression:
suicidal thoughts
Feelings of guilt and worthlessness
Persistent low mood
Less pleasure in normal activities
Physiological symptoms:
Fatigue/loss of energy
Changes in weight/appetite
Psychological symptoms of Mania:
Inflated self esteem
Racing thoughts
Physiological symptoms:
High risk hedonistic behaviour
Increased goal directed behaviour
Decreased need for sleep
Rapid speech…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

Issues with Classification and diagnosis of depression
The DSM- It is a way of making diagnosis more reliable. To be diagnosed as depressed
according to the DSM-IV-TR (2000), 5 clinical characteristics need to occur nearly
every day for a minimum of two weeks.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Symptoms for diagnosing children include; irritability, over eating, excessive
sleeping and the creation of head/stomach aches to get out of participating in
activities. However lots of children do this all the time
Misdiagnosis. Rosenhan (1973) carried out a study on diagnosis. * sane
patients were admitted into hospital by faking symptoms of schizophrenia.
When the participants stopped faking their symptoms 7/8 were still labelled
as schizophrenic. Note taking in 3 cases and lining up early for lunch in
another case was seen as symptoms.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

The hostile feelings are redirected towards the
self because they are unacceptable by the superego.
Evaluating the psychodynamic approach
Supporting evidence is given by Hinde who found who found that infant
monkeys who were separated from their mums showed signs of depression.
This supports the theory as the theory states that childhood trauma leads to
As it was animal research it was easier to control extraneous variables as
they are not as complex as humans.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

According to Beck people can have negative schema's about themselves for
e.g. "I am a bad person", their experiences for e.g. "My life is terrible" and the future
for e.g. "Things will not improve".
The negative schema that that depressed people have causes information processing
biases for e.g.…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

Psychodynamic treatments (psychoanalysis) aim to help a person cope better with
their unconscious conflicts by releasing them into their conscious thoughts for e.g.
anger at someone.
One type of psychodynamic treatment is word association in which a client responds
to a word with whatever comes into their heads first e.g. a client responding with
Another method is dream analysis in which the client recounts their dreams and the
psychoanalyst helps them to interpret symbols e.g dreaming of water symbolises
rebirth.…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Here's a taster:

Overall evaluation
Timescale- takes a long time compared to medicines
Expensive- as it takes a long time the cost will increase
Root cause- it doesn't just treat the symptoms
It is good effective therapy, especially for the mildly depressed however should be
combined with medicines to boost success rate especially for severely depressed
Cognitive-behavioural therapy for depression
CBT aims to provide opportunities both in and out of therapy sessions that will
change the client's negative talk to be more positive.…read more

Page 9

Preview of page 9

Here's a taster:

Evidence against CBT`s (superiority) is from Jarrett et al who found CBT and
MAOI antidepressants to be equally effective with 108 patients with severe
depression over a 10 week trial
A problem with Hollon and Jarrett's studies is
A problem with this study is that 12/10 weeks is not long enough to assess
the longer term effectiveness
A control group would enables a better comparison and a better conclusion
would be reached
Overall Evaluation
No side effects
Reductionist- recovery can't just be based on faulty…read more

Page 10

Preview of page 10

Here's a taster:

A behavioural psychologist might say there is no genetic link, just that the
behaviour is learned.
It was a meta-analysis and all the studies used had different aims so there
could potentially be a mix up in results and findings
Further supporting evidence is through twin studies. McCuffin et al found a
concordance rate of 46% in Mz twins and 20% in Dz twins for depression. This
supports the theory as the theory would suggest rising concordance as the
genetic link rises.…read more


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all resources »