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Types of depression

Clinical Characteristics of depression

Issues with Classification and Diagnosis of depression

Psychodynamic approach for explaining depression

Cognitive approach for explaining depression

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Types of Depression
Unipolar (major depressive disorder) - Only experience symptoms of depression

Bipolar (manic depression) - Involves mood swings between depression and mania

Clinical Characteristics of depression
Psychological symptoms of depression:

suicidal thoughts
Feelings of guilt and worthlessness
Persistent low mood
Less pleasure in normal activities

Physiological symptoms:


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Issues with Classification and diagnosis of depression

The DSM- It is a way of making diagnosis more reliable. To be diagnosed as depressed
according to the DSM-IV-TR (2000), 5 clinical characteristics need to occur nearly
every day for a minimum of two weeks.


Issues with diagnosing depression are categorised…

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Symptoms for diagnosing children include; irritability, over eating, excessive
sleeping and the creation of head/stomach aches to get out of participating in
activities. However lots of children do this all the time
Misdiagnosis. Rosenhan (1973) carried out a study on diagnosis. * sane
patients were admitted into hospital by faking…

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hostile feelings towards the caregiver. The hostile feelings are redirected towards the
self because they are unacceptable by the superego.

Evaluating the psychodynamic approach

Supporting evidence is given by Hinde who found who found that infant
monkeys who were separated from their mums showed signs of depression.
This supports the…

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person has. According to Beck people can have negative schema's about themselves for
e.g. "I am a bad person", their experiences for e.g. "My life is terrible" and the future
for e.g. "Things will not improve".

The negative schema that that depressed people have causes information processing
biases for e.g.…

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Psychodynamic treatments (psychoanalysis) aim to help a person cope better with
their unconscious conflicts by releasing them into their conscious thoughts for e.g.
anger at someone.

One type of psychodynamic treatment is word association in which a client responds
to a word with whatever comes into their heads first e.g.…

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Overall evaluation

Timescale- takes a long time compared to medicines

Expensive- as it takes a long time the cost will increase

Root cause- it doesn't just treat the symptoms


It is good effective therapy, especially for the mildly depressed however should be
combined with medicines to boost success rate…

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Evidence against CBT`s (superiority) is from Jarrett et al who found CBT and
MAOI antidepressants to be equally effective with 108 patients with severe
depression over a 10 week trial
A problem with Hollon and Jarrett's studies is
A problem with this study is that 12/10 weeks is not long…

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A behavioural psychologist might say there is no genetic link, just that the
behaviour is learned.
It was a meta-analysis and all the studies used had different aims so there
could potentially be a mix up in results and findings
Further supporting evidence is through twin studies. McCuffin et al…


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