Psychology Disorders

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  • Created by: mollyycaa
  • Created on: 14-01-16 14:23
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  • Disorders
    • Psychotic
      • Lost contact with reality
      • Schizophrenia
        • Positive Symptoms are gained: Delusions, auditory hallusicnations, and hallucinations
        • Negative Symptoms are lost: emotional response, inability to feel pressure, lack of motivation, inability to feel pleasure(apathy)
        • Person doesn't start suffering until they have insight
    • Affective
      • Affects  and diables moods which prevents the individual from leading a normal life
      • Depression
        • Feeling down constantly
        • Prevents individual from lliving a normal life at work, socially, or within their family and friends
        • DSM
          • Insomnia most nights, fidgetis or lethargy, tiredness, feelings of worthlessness or guilt, less ability to concentrate, recurrent thoughts of death,, symptoms not caused by medication
        • Behavioral Explanation LEWISOHN
          • Affective disorders are caused by classical and operant conditioning
          • 30 day study, Self-report of pleasant achtivites on a pleasant events schedule, and a self-report rating of depression using a depression adjective checklist
          • 30 participants diasgnosed with depression, a disorder other than depression, and 'normal' controls
          • To compare the amount of 'positive reinforcement' received by depressed and non-depressed patients
        • Biological Explanation WENDER
          • Genetic disposition towards depression
          • Investigate the contribution of genetic and environmental factors in the aetiology of mood disorders
            • 71 people who were adopted. Mean age of 43.7 with a mood disorder. 71 people with a mean age of 44 all psychiatrically normal. Removed from mother at early age.
              • Psychiatric evaluations of relatives were made by independent blind diagnosis of mental hospital and other official records
          • 8-fold increase in unipolar depression among the biological relatives
        • Cognitive Explanation BECK
          • Self-report interviews of independent groups
            • 50 patients diagnosed with depression. 16 men, 34 women. Aged 1-48 with a mean of 34. Middle or upper class with average intelligence.
              • Women more likely to have depression due to hormones and being open with their emotions
              • Information from face-t-face interviews
                • Information from psychiatrist
                  • Information from patient's diaries
        • Treating Biological KARP AND FRANK
      • They usually have insight
    • Anxiety
      • Triggered by something trival to other but feels real to the person
      • Continuous feelings of fear and anxiety which is disabling and can impose on daily functioning
  • DSM
    • Delusions, hallucinations, disorganised speech, disorganised behaviour, negative symptoms, social occupational dysfunction, at least 6 months duration, no other explanation can be found such as drugs.
    • Schizophrenia
      • Positive Symptoms are gained: Delusions, auditory hallusicnations, and hallucinations
      • Negative Symptoms are lost: emotional response, inability to feel pressure, lack of motivation, inability to feel pleasure(apathy)
      • Person doesn't start suffering until they have insight
  • DSM
    • Marked and persistent fear that is excessive or unreasonable, exposure to phobic stimulus provokes immediate anxiety response, person recognices the fear is excessive, if the person tried to aviod the phobic situation
    • Phobia
      • Anxiety
        • Triggered by something trival to other but feels real to the person
        • Continuous feelings of fear and anxiety which is disabling and can impose on daily functioning
  • Significant positive correlations between mood rating and pleasant activities, with involvement in more pleasant activities being correlated with more positive mood ratings
    • Individual differences from a correlation of 0 to -0.66 which shows there is more to depression than reinforcement from pleasant activities.
      • There appears to be a link between reinforcement from pleasant activities and mood but further research is needed due to the individual differences
    • Behavioral Explanation LEWISOHN
      • Affective disorders are caused by classical and operant conditioning
      • 30 day study, Self-report of pleasant achtivites on a pleasant events schedule, and a self-report rating of depression using a depression adjective checklist
      • 30 participants diasgnosed with depression, a disorder other than depression, and 'normal' controls
      • To compare the amount of 'positive reinforcement' received by depressed and non-depressed patients
  • Information from face-t-face interviews
    • Information from psychiatrist
      • Information from patient's diaries
  • Depressed patients had a stereotypical response to situations
    • Depressed patients regard themselves as inferior to others in their social or occupational groups
      • In conclusions patients have cognitive distortions that deviate from realistic and logical thinking. These distortions relate only to depression.
  • To evaluate the efficacy of ;coping with depression' course.
    • 59 participants from two areas of Oregon. 15-18 year olds diagnosed with depression. Originally 69.
      • Group 1 only adolescents received the course. Group 2 the adolescent and parent received the course. Group 3 control group where participants are on the waiting list.
        • Longitudinal study assessed by interview on several depression measures such as Beck's Depression Inventory.
          • Participants assessed by interviews before the treatment started, when it finished, and 1, 6, 12, and 14 months after the treatment finished.
            • Participants on the waiting list were told that they were on the waiting list but they offered other treatment if they felt that they couldn't wait.
              • Treatment was controlled by having detailed manuals for the therapists, with homework and handouts for participants.
                • Parents were taught how to reinforce expected positive changes in their depressed children.
                  • Shows the efficacy of the 'coping with depression' course, which reinforces changed in negative behavior with rewarding pleasant activities, and positive parental reinforcement. There is an element of cognitive behavioral therapy in the cognitive restructuring, the behavioral reinforcement is an integral part of this treatment
    • Behavioural Treatment Lewinsohn
      • Depressed behaviour is learned and therefore can be unlearned.
      • Depression
        • Feeling down constantly
        • Prevents individual from lliving a normal life at work, socially, or within their family and friends
        • DSM
          • Insomnia most nights, fidgetis or lethargy, tiredness, feelings of worthlessness or guilt, less ability to concentrate, recurrent thoughts of death,, symptoms not caused by medication
        • Biological Explanation WENDER
          • Genetic disposition towards depression
          • Investigate the contribution of genetic and environmental factors in the aetiology of mood disorders
            • 71 people who were adopted. Mean age of 43.7 with a mood disorder. 71 people with a mean age of 44 all psychiatrically normal. Removed from mother at early age.
              • Psychiatric evaluations of relatives were made by independent blind diagnosis of mental hospital and other official records
          • 8-fold increase in unipolar depression among the biological relatives
        • Cognitive Explanation BECK
          • Self-report interviews of independent groups
            • 50 patients diagnosed with depression. 16 men, 34 women. Aged 1-48 with a mean of 34. Middle or upper class with average intelligence.
              • Women more likely to have depression due to hormones and being open with their emotions
        • Treating Biological KARP AND FRANK
  • Longitudinal study assessed by interview on several depression measures such as Beck's Depression Inventory.
    • Participants assessed by interviews before the treatment started, when it finished, and 1, 6, 12, and 14 months after the treatment finished.
      • Participants on the waiting list were told that they were on the waiting list but they offered other treatment if they felt that they couldn't wait.
        • Treatment was controlled by having detailed manuals for the therapists, with homework and handouts for participants.
          • Parents were taught how to reinforce expected positive changes in their depressed children.
            • Shows the efficacy of the 'coping with depression' course, which reinforces changed in negative behavior with rewarding pleasant activities, and positive parental reinforcement. There is an element of cognitive behavioral therapy in the cognitive restructuring, the behavioral reinforcement is an integral part of this treatment
  • Treatment group had 14, 2 hours sessions over 7 weeks. Given skills training. They focused on relaxation methods, controlling, irrational and negative though, increased social skills, and increasing pleasant events in their life.
    • It was more based on experimental learning, whe. re participants practised the skills during the therapy sesion. it developed conflict resolution skills where participants could improve their communication and problem-solving skills
  • only 52% of group 2 met the DSM criteria for depression. 57% of group 1 ere diagnosed with depressions. Group 3 showed very little change with 94.7% still meeting the depression criteria.
    • In the follow-up, the participant numbers dropped but across all of the follow-up interview the treatment groups continued to show less depression
      • It was more based on experimental learning, whe. re participants practised the skills during the therapy sesion. it developed conflict resolution skills where participants could improve their communication and problem-solving skills
    • Faulty cognition which underlie the cognitive theory of dysfunctional behavior. Restructure the thoughts of the patients from irrational thinking to rational thinking.
      • Cognitive Treatment ELLIS
        • 78 patients treated with rational analysis matched with 78 patients treated with psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy. Another group of 16 patients who had been treated with orthodox psychoanalysis.
          • An independent design with allocation to one of the three cognition having been previously treated using one of three therapies. It's a review of patients' cases from therapists' notes.
            • To compared the effectiveness of rational therapy, psychoanalysis and psychoanalytically oriented therapy.
          • The therapeutic outcomes of the three groups of patients were compared
            • The group with the highest improvement rate was the rational psychotherapy group at 90% showing a distinct or considerable improvement. The psychoanalysis-orientate group improved by 63$ and the psychoanalysis group only 50% improvement.
    • The details of the cases showed that each client tended to hold several irrational ideas. This most improvement was shown in people who changed most of these iirrational beliefs.
      • The group with the highest improvement rate was the rational psychotherapy group at 90% showing a distinct or considerable improvement. The psychoanalysis-orientate group improved by 63$ and the psychoanalysis group only 50% improvement.
    • The research which was reviewed concentration on women diagnosed with depression.
      • Depression was analysed using a variety of depression inventories and patients were tested mainly prior to treatment, after treatment, and in some cases after a period of time as a follow up. Some health practitioner assessments of symptoms were also used by some of the research.
        • Adding psychological treatments to drug therapy did not increase the effectiveness of the drug therapy. Occasionally therapies were used. People were more likely to continue with treatment if cognitive therapy was given addition to drug therapy.
      • Review article
        • To compare drug treatment and non-drug treatments for depression
      • There is no better outcomes for patients offered combine therapy as opposed to only drug therapy showing the effectiveness of drug therapy on depression
        • We didn't know how severe their depression was originally.
        • Adding psychological treatments to drug therapy did not increase the effectiveness of the drug therapy. Occasionally therapies were used. People were more likely to continue with treatment if cognitive therapy was given addition to drug therapy.

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