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AQA GCSE Biology ­ Unit 2 summary notes












AQA
GCSE Biology
New Unit 2
Summary Notes






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AQA GCSE Biology ­ Unit 2 summary notes
B2.1 Cells and Cell Structures

Summary
All living things are made up of cells. The structures of different types of cells are related to
their functions. To get into or out of cells, dissolved substances have to cross the cell
membranes.

Cells…

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AQA GCSE Biology ­ Unit 2 summary notes

Cytoplasm ­ where most of the chemical reactions take place.
Cell membrane controls the passage of substances in and out of the cell.
Mitochondria where most energy is released in respiration.
Ribosomes where protein synthesis occurs.
Cell wall ­ made of cellulose…

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AQA GCSE Biology ­ Unit 2 summary notes








Cells may be specialised to carry out a particular function.

Examples:






Movement into and out of cells

To get into or out of cells, dissolved substances have to cross the cell membranes.
Solutes = particles in solution eg glucose, sodium ions, chloride…

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AQA GCSE Biology ­ Unit 2 summary notes


Diffusion
Diffusion is the spreading of the particles of a gas, or of any substance in solution,
resulting in a net movement from a region where they are of a higher concentration.
Oxygen required for respiration passes through cell membranes by diffusion.…

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AQA GCSE Biology ­ Unit 2 summary notes
B2.1 Tissues, Organs and Organ Systems

Summary
The cells of multicellular organisms may differentiate and become adapted for specific
functions. Tissues are aggregations of similar cells organs are aggregations of tissues
performing specific physiological functions. Organs are organised into organ systems,
which…

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AQA GCSE Biology ­ Unit 2 summary notes





Plant organs
Plant organs include stems, roots and leaves.
Examples of plant tissues include:
epidermal tissues, which cover the plant
mesophyll, which carries out photosynthesis
xylem and phloem, which transport substances around the plant.




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AQA GCSE Biology ­ Unit 2 summary notes

B2.3 Photosynthesis

Summary
Green plants and algae use light energy to make their own food. They obtain the raw
materials they need to make this food from the air and the soil. The conditions in which
plants are grown can be changed…

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AQA GCSE Biology ­ Unit 2 summary notes



Factors that limit the rate of photosynthesis

1) Temperature
A low temperature will limit the rate as the molecules will move less and therefore the
reaction happens slower

2) Carbon dioxide
A shortage of CO 2 will limit the rate as fewer…

Comments

monsterclaw123

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this is for nerds

Zeeshan_

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Well Monsterclaw123 if yoy want to do good in your exam i suggest you read it 

Zeeshan_

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Well Monsterclaw123 if yoy want to do good in your exam i suggest you read it 

Dannymarsh

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zeeshan take no notice of him 

Zainab Khan 008926

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this is so good thanks :)

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