GCSE BIOLOGY UNIT 1 SUMMARY NOTES

Hello Everyone, This is a detailed summary notes on Aqa Biology Unit 1. It includes all the topics from the new specification.

Topics Include:

B1.1- Keeping Healthy

B1.1.2-Infectious Diseases

B1.2- Nerves and Hormones

B1.3-The use and abuse of Drugs

B1.4- Interdependence and Adaptation

B1.5- Energy and biomass in food chains

B1.6- Waste Materials  from plants and animals

B1.7- Genetic Variation and Its Control

B1.8- Evolution

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AQA GCSE Biology ­ Unit 1 summary notes
B1.1 Keeping Healthy
B1.1.1 Diet and Exercise
Summary
A combination of a balanced diet and regular exercise is needed to help keep the body
healthy.
Healthy Diet
A healthy diet contains the right balance of the different foods you need and the right
amount of energy.…read more

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AQA GCSE Biology ­ Unit 1 summary notes
Exercise increases the proportion of muscle to fat.
Inheritance
Inherited factors can influence our health.
We can inherit genes from our parents which can influence our metabolic rate.
We can also inherit genes which influence our cholesterol level.
Cholesterol is a substance that our body creates from fat that we consume in our diet.
Cholesterol is needed to make cell membranes.…read more

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AQA GCSE Biology ­ Unit 1 summary notes
B 1.1.2 Infectious Disease
Summary
Our bodies provide an excellent environment for many microbes which can make us ill once
they are inside us. Our bodies need to stop most microbes getting in and deal with any
microbes which do get in. Vaccination can be used to prevent infection.
Pathogens
Microorganisms that cause infectious disease are called pathogens.
Disease occurs when large numbers of pathogenic microorganisms enter the body.
Bacteria
Not all bacteria are pathogens.…read more

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AQA GCSE Biology ­ Unit 1 summary notes
The immune system
The body has different ways of protecting itself against pathogens.
White blood cells defend our internal environment from pathogens
These form part of our immune system.
There are various types of white blood cells:
Cells that ingest and destroy microorganisms
Cells that produce antitoxins that destroy toxins released by pathogens
Cells that produce antibodies that destroy specific pathogens:
o They produce specific antibodies to kill a particular pathogen.…read more

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AQA GCSE Biology ­ Unit 1 summary notes
This idea was not readily accepted ­ people were not aware of microorganisms.
Nowadays, it is standard practice for people to wash hands after treating patients, to
prevent disease being transmitted to other patients.
Using drugs to treat disease
Some medicines, including painkillers, help to relieve the symptoms of infectious disease,
but do not kill the pathogens.
Antibiotics are medicines that help to cure bacterial disease by killing infective bacteria
inside the body.…read more

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AQA GCSE Biology ­ Unit 1 summary notes
What can be done?
Doctor's should only prescribe antibiotics when necessary ­ and not for viruses.
It is important that if you are prescribed antibiotics you take the whole course.
o A lot of people will stop taking the antibiotic when they feel better.
o If you do this, you leave a few bacteria inside your body.
o These will reproduce, increasing the chance of some developing resistance.…read more

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AQA GCSE Biology ­ Unit 1 summary notes
In school and college laboratories, cultures should be incubated at a maximum temperature
of 25oC.
This greatly reduces the likelihood of growth of pathogens that might be harmful to humans.
In industrial conditions higher temperatures can produce more rapid growth.…read more

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AQA GCSE Biology ­ Unit 1 summary notes
B1.2 Nerves and Hormones
Summary
The nervous system and hormones enable us to respond to external changes. They also help
us to control conditions inside our bodies. Hormones are used in some forms of contraception
and in fertility treatments. Plants also produce hormones and respond to external stimuli.
The nervous system
The nervous system enables humans to react to their surroundings and coordinate their
behaviour.
Central nervous system = brain plus spinal cord.…read more

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