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Slide 1

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Learning Objectives
By the end of this lesson you will be able to...
1. Identify and outline the
key points of some further
2. Recognize how these fall
under the active audiences
approach and are different
to some of the others we
considered.…read more

Slide 2

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Active Audience
We already looked at:
the uses and gratifications model
We're going to now look at:
Selective filter model
Structured interpretation model…read more

Slide 3

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The selective filter model
Some messages are retained,
others are ignored or rejected
by the audience.
Klapper (1960) suggests that for a media message to have
an effect, it must pass through the following 3 filters:
+ Selective exposure (must first be chosen to be viewed/read/listened to and this
depends upon people's interests, education, work commitments etc)
+ Selective perception (the messages have to be accepted. For example, some
people may take notice of certain TV programmes but reject/ignore others)
+ Selective retention (the messages have to `stick'. People have a tendency to
remember only the things they broadly agree with).…read more

Slide 4

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Structured Interpretation Model
People interpret media texts (this More positive than C/E
means any media outputs) model. Even though one
according to their class, age, interpretation is dominant it
is not always accepted.
gender, ethnicity or other sources
of identity.
Morley (1980) argues that
people choose to make one of
three responses:
+ Dominant (they go along with the views
expressed in the media text)
+ Oppositional (they oppose the views
+ Negotiated (they reinterpret the views to fit
in with their own opinions and values).…read more

Slide 5

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And what else????
What does postmodern Some postmodern approaches
would argue that
approaches say about the generalizations about
relationship between the media effects and
audiences are impossible,
media and the audience? since the same person may
react to the same media
message in different ways
If we take Baudrillard's view of the
in different situations.
media as a hyper-reality then this
makes any argument about media
effects redundant as media itself is
reality so therefore cannot
distort/impact on reality in the first
place!…read more

Slide 6

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And what else????
What about the impact
of new media?
Livesey and Lawson (2009)
argue that because the
new media involves more
audience creation/input, it
could be said that the
audience `are' the media.
Therefore can't really talk
of the media impacting on
the audience!…read more

Slide 7

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