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The Multi-Store Model of Memory:
Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968…read more

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Key features
The model shows 3 different types of memory:
- Sensory memory (SM)
Capacity ­ how
- Short term memory (STM) much information
can be held.
- Long term memory (LTM) Measured in bits
- Each store retains a different amount of info, in a
different way, and for a different length of time
Encoding ­ the
way information Duration ­ how
is changed so it long information
can be stored. can be held for.…read more

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Sensory memory
The sensory memory takes information from one of the sense's:
- Touch (haptic memory)
- Sight (iconic memory)
- Sound (echoic memory) -Taste
It has a tiny duration, roughly 2 seconds, and if attention is paid to
information, it's passed onto STM.
Sperling (1960) showed participants a grid of digits and letters for 50
milliseconds. They were then asked to recall whole grid, or one row
determined by a high medium or low toned beep played. People
recall was poorer when asked to recall whole grid (42%) then when
they were asked to recall a row (75%). This shows information
decays rapidly in the SM store.…read more

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Short Term Memory
· Information is in a `fragile' state here, and will decay if not rehearsed
(maintenance rehearsal), because STM has a limited capacity and a short
· It holds 7 +- 2 chunks of information. This was investigated by Miller (1956)
who found that on average we can recall 5 words/letters by chunking
(grouping digits or letters). However Simon (1974) found that shorter words
needed less memory so the size of the chunk matters. New research
conducted by Cowan (2001) has shown the digit span to be 4.
· The duration of STM is measured in seconds and minutes. Peterson &
Peterson (1959) asked students to recall a nonsense trigram after counting
back in 3's for longer and longer intervals (known as the brown-peterson
technique). There was a 90% accurate recall with the 3-second interval, but
2% accurate recall by the 18-second interval. This suggests when rehearsal is
prevented STM last 20 seconds maximum.
· Information is moved from STM to LTM through elaborative rehearsal
meaning the more it's rehearsed the better it's remembered.…read more

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Long Term Memory
· It's difficult to test the and capacity as its potentially
· The duration of LTM is anything from 2 hours too 100 +
years. Bahrick et al (1975) who asked people to put names
to faces in a school year book found that 48 years on
people were 70% accurate in putting the correct name to
the correct photo.
· Baddeley (1966) conducted a study to work out how info
is encoded in LTM. He gave participants lists of words
which were acoustically or semantically similar or
dissimilar. He found participants struggled with
acoustically similar words in STM and struggled with
semantically similar words in LTM, showing this is how
they're processed.…read more

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