Memory - AS Psychology

Includes information on Working Memory Model, The multi-store model and Eye Witness testimony

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  • Created by: Kehza
  • Created on: 11-05-09 14:26
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MEMORY IN EVERYDAY LIFE
Outline 2 Studies of eyewitness testimony
Evaluate above study
List 2 factors affecting eye witness testimony
List 3 factors that can lead to misleading information
Explain and conclude cognitive interview

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MEMORY IN EVERYDAY LIFE
OUTLINE 2 STUDIES OF EYEWITNESS TESTIMONY
LOFTUS, ELIZABETH.
P's shown a film of a car accident
P's split into control and experimental group
Control asked consistent questions about the event
Experimental asked misleading questions about the event "I.e. Smashed, bumped etc."
Experimental group had reconstructed memory due to misleading questions. For
example they seen glass even though there wasn't any
METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES
Laboratory experiment ­ Low ecological validity, Participant effects.…read more

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ETHICAL ISSUES
P's may find it psychologically harmful if they're involved in a bank robbery etc, but
unlikely as a stage act was used instead of real event/video.
EVALUATE ABOVE STUDIES
Done see above
2 FACTORS AFFECTING EYEWITNESS TESTIMONY
Weapons Effect
P's will get nervous, anxious and stressed reducing chance of accurate recall.
They will concentrate more on weapon than the person
Age
Children = Will probably exaggerate elements; will reconstruct memory due to schemata
etc.…read more

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FACTORS THAT CAN LEAD TO MISLEADING INFORMATION
Reconstructive memory
Recall back to Poole and Lindsay experiment on car crash
Misleading questions
Recall back to Loftus experiment on car crash
Schemata
Recall back to Tuckey and Brewer experiment on bank robbery.…read more

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COGNITIVE INTERVIEW
4 Stages:
Context Reinstatement (CR)
Mentally reinstate of event remember every variable and detail
Report Everything (RE)
Report every detail you can recall.
Recall in reverse order (RO)
Recall in different orders moving backwards and forwards in time etc.
Recall from changed perspective (CP)
Recall it from someone else's viewpoint i.e. empathy.
Crook the rusty rabbit eats rotten oranges and gets crappy payment.…read more

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MODELS OF MEMORY (MSM)
Identify the Multi-Store Model ( MSM )
Discuss two experiments of MSM
Discuss STM,
Discuss LTM
Discuss Sensory memory
Evaluate MSM…read more

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IDENTIFY MSM
Basically explain how our memory works as seen below
If attention is upheld information from the sensory memory goes into STM
If rehearsal is done information ( mainly auditory ) in the STM is passed onto the LTM
Information in the LTM is semantic.…read more

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This experiment suggests that on average P's had seen 9-10 whole letters (of 12) (This is because
they can remember 3 letters with tones of 3 rows and 3x3 = 9). However by the time they had
said the letters the visual imagery of the chart had already started to fade explaining why they
could only remember 4-5.
Methodological issues
Study may lack validity as it is a laboratory experiment
Ethical Issues
No major ethical issues however consent is required.…read more

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Encoding Mainly Acoustic
Forgetting Mainly Displacement ( To place an emotion *
Normally anger or sexual energy * at
someone/something else who is less
threatening or did not cause it. I.e. Roommate
annoys you, you punch a pillow.…read more

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Duration = How long information can be held for
Encoding = How the information is stored I.e. Visually.…read more

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