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MEMORY IN EVERYDAY LIFE

Outline 2 Studies of eyewitness testimony
Evaluate above study
List 2 factors affecting eye witness testimony
List 3 factors that can lead to misleading information
Explain and conclude cognitive interview

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MEMORY IN EVERYDAY LIFE

OUTLINE 2 STUDIES OF EYEWITNESS TESTIMONY


LOFTUS, ELIZABETH.


P's shown a film of a car accident
P's split into control and experimental group
Control asked consistent questions about the event
Experimental asked misleading questions about the event "I.e. Smashed, bumped etc."

Experimental group had reconstructed memory…

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ETHICAL ISSUES


P's may find it psychologically harmful if they're involved in a bank robbery etc, but
unlikely as a stage act was used instead of real event/video.



EVALUATE ABOVE STUDIES


Done see above



2 FACTORS AFFECTING EYEWITNESS TESTIMONY


Weapons Effect

P's will get nervous, anxious and stressed reducing chance…

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3 FACTORS THAT CAN LEAD TO MISLEADING INFORMATION


Reconstructive memory

Recall back to Poole and Lindsay experiment on car crash

Misleading questions

Recall back to Loftus experiment on car crash

Schemata

Recall back to Tuckey and Brewer experiment on bank robbery.
Schemata's can lead to reconstructive memory

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COGNITIVE INTERVIEW
4 Stages:

Context Reinstatement (CR)

Mentally reinstate of event remember every variable and detail

Report Everything (RE)

Report every detail you can recall.

Recall in reverse order (RO)

Recall in different orders moving backwards and forwards in time etc.

Recall from changed perspective (CP)

Recall it from someone…

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MODELS OF MEMORY (MSM)



Identify the Multi-Store Model ( MSM )
Discuss two experiments of MSM
Discuss STM,
Discuss LTM
Discuss Sensory memory
Evaluate MSM

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IDENTIFY MSM
Basically explain how our memory works as seen below
If attention is upheld information from the sensory memory goes into STM
If rehearsal is done information ( mainly auditory ) in the STM is passed onto the LTM
Information in the LTM is semantic.




SPERLING'S EXPERIMENT ­ SENSORY…

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This experiment suggests that on average P's had seen 9-10 whole letters (of 12) (This is because
they can remember 3 letters with tones of 3 rows and 3x3 = 9). However by the time they had
said the letters the visual imagery of the chart had already started to…

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Encoding Mainly Acoustic
Forgetting Mainly Displacement ( To place an emotion *
Normally anger or sexual energy * at
someone/something else who is less
threatening or did not cause it. I.e. Roommate
annoys you, you punch a pillow.


CONRAD'S STUDY
P's = Students

Shown random letters on screen quickly then…

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Duration = How long information can be held for

Encoding = How the information is stored I.e. Visually.




EVALUATION OF MSM


Strengths



HM had brain surgery due to epilepsy
LTM become very bad ­ Unable to form new memories via rehearsal
This supports MSM for having different memory storages
It…

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