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Media Psychology




Media Influences on Prosocial Behaviour

Exposure to prosocial behaviour ­ content analysis found two thirds of children's programmes contained at
least on violent act. Greenburg looked at US children's programmes and found as many prosocial acts as
antisocial ones.

Acquisition of prosocial behaviours and norms ­ Bandura's social…

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Media Psychology




discussion. However, Rubenstein and Sprafkin found decreased altruism among adolescents hospitalised
for psychological problems, possibly because adolescents take a counter view to adults
Developmental factors ­ meta-analysis by Mares found that weakest effect of prosocial
programming was for adolescents and strongest was for primary school children, effects for…

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Media Psychology




children watches the more acceptable aggressive behaviour becomes to that child. They will feel less anxiety
about violence so are desensitised and may be more likely to engage in violence.

Lowered physiological arousal ­ there are stronger desensitisation effects for males than females.
Huesmann and Moise found that…

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Media Psychology




and girls), while two showed increases (boys only). Two significant changes in antisocial behaviour
showed a decrease.
Gender bias ­ effects primarily focus on acts of male-on-male physical violence, frequently viewed in
artificial laboratory setting. Effects research uses unrepresentative samples (male students) and then
makes generalisations about all…

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Media Psychology




killing spree in their high school. This, and other crimes, has led to families of victims blaming
video games.

Evidence/Evaluation:

Experimental studies ­ strength is that causal relationships between exposure to game play and
subsequent aggressive behaviour can be determined, but only short term effects. Weakness is that…

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Media Psychology




extremely different. The use of attractive sources can be effective in attitude change especially when used in
the peripheral route.

Message factors ­ Older children understand the persuasive intent of advertisements, so are less influenced by
them. Low-fear and high-fear messages do not appear as effective as moderate-fear…

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Media Psychology




more likely to focus on quality of arguments than their context. Attitudes changed this way are long
lasting and less susceptible to attempts to change them
The peripheral route to persuasion ­ Fiske and Taylor said that most people are cognitive misers so
rely on simple and time-efficient…

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Media Psychology




law. They found significantly fewer gift requests among Swedish children; lack of advertising was probably a
direct cause of this.

Evidence/Evaluation:

Product endorsement ­ Celebrity endorsements may not be as effective as first thought. Martin
found that student participants were more convinced by a television endorsement from a…

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Media Psychology




32 weeks this knowledge had dropped to 73% in those who had seen the episode, and risen to 50% in those
who hadn't. Philo and Henderson investigated the effects of a Casualty episode that highlighted the issue of
unnecessary hospital attendance. A large proportion of people who had…

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Media Psychology




Parasocial relationships ­ although it is commonly believed that these relationships are
dysfunctional, formed on the basis of loneliness, Shiappa's meta-analysis found that this wasn't the case.
People who are more socially active and socially motivated are more likely to engage in parasocial
relationships
Benefits ­ they provide…

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