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Media has significant effect on the audience.

Mass Media according to McCullagh (2002) is simply the means through which content whether fact
or fiction is produced by organisations and transmitted to and received by an audience. McQuail
(2000) sees the mass media as of great significance in relation to culture…

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catharsis, and thus prevent behaviours that might otherwise have prevent happened. The concept of
catharsis confirms that the media can have a direct effect but it challenges the fears that are founded
on such theories.

Traditional Marxists tend to agree with direct theories and see the effect of the media…

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effect that the media have. The two-step model evidently demonstrates that the media does not
have a significant effect on the audience.

Livingstone and Bovill (2001) found evidence for the two-step flow model in their research and
found that use of the media with peers differs considerable according to country…

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audience with particular ways of looking at the media. A person's subculture strongly influences
whether they accept, alter or reject the dominant meaning of a media message.

Fiske also believes that the media can promote diversity. This is evident in Postmodern views who see
the media as characterised by diversity…

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In conclusion, theorists such as Marxism and Neo-Marxism argue that the media have a powerful and
immediate effect on audiences while Interpretivists see the effect as occurring over a longer period of
time such that it becomes part of the audience's ways of experiencing the world. Post-modernists
regard the media…

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