Both are actuve audience approaches - people have considerable choice in the way they use and interpret the media.
TWO STEP FLOW
- Katz and Lazarsfeld - personal relationships and conversations with significant others result in people modifying/rejecting media messages. Social networks are usually dominated by an opinion leaders. Media message have to go throught 2 stages/steps:
- Opinion leader is exposed to media content. (they expose themselves to different types of media such as newspapers, TV news, documentaries and soap operas)
- Those who respect the opinion leader internalise their interpretation of that content
Consequently, media audiences are not directly influenced by the media - choose to adopt a particular opinion, attitude and way of behaving after negotiation and discussion with an opinion leader. Audience therefore, active.
SELECTIVE FILTER MODEL
- Klapper - for a media message to have any effect - must pass through the following three filters:
- Selective exposure - audience must choose to read, view or listen to the content of specific media. Media message have no effect if no one sees or hears them. However, audiences choose content based on interest and the film certification system prevents the access of some audiences to some media content.
- Selective perception - audience may not accept the message, some people may take notice of some media content but decide to reject or ignore others. Eg a heavy sooker will choose to ignore the content of a TV programme that stresses the link between smoking and lung cancer.
- Selective retention - messages have to stick in the mind of those who have accesed the media content. However, research indicates…