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MECANICS 7.1 ­ 8.8

Scalars and vectors
· A scalar has only magnitude
o mass, temperature, time, length, speed and energy

· Vector quantities have both magnitude and direction
o displacement, force, velocity, acceleration and momentum

· Resultant Vectors
o Magnitude = Pythagoras
o Direction = Trigonometry

· Resolving…

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The centre of gravity of an object is the point at which its entire weight appears to act

An object will balance if supported at its centre of gravity

A freely suspended object will always come to rest with its centre of gravity directly below
the point of suspension.


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If the object starts off at angle:

1. Resolve the initial velocity into vertical and horizontal components.
2. Use the vertical component to work out how high and long it is in the air for.
3. Use the horizontal component to work out how far it goes whilst it is…

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Velocity time graphs.
The gradient of a velocity time graph tells you the acceleration

The area under a speed time graph tells you the distance travelled

Constant acceleration is shown by a straight line

Decreasing acceleration if shown by a curve decreasing in gradient

Increasing acceleration is shown by a…

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If object 1 exerts a force on object 2, then object 2 exerts an equal and opposite force on
object 1.

Car safety features designed to slow you down:
1. Seatbelts.
2. Airbags.
3. Crumple zones.
4. Safety cages.

Newton's third law Pairs
The two forces in a Newton pair…

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Efficiency is equal to the useful energy or power output divided by the total energy or power input.

MATERIALS 11.1 ­ 11.4

Hooke's Law
States that extension is proportional to force up to the elastic limit

Hooke's law: Force is equal to stiffness constant (k) times the extension (e).…

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As you increase the tensile force the effect of the stress is to pull atoms apart. Eventually the
stress becomes so large the atom completely separate and the material breaks. On a stress,
strain graph this is the ultimate tensile stress point.

Elastic Strain energy is stored in a stretched…

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Strong materials have a high breaking stress.

Elastic materials regains original dimensions when the deforming force is removed.

Interpreting stress strain graphs

Materials With a large gradient than another material is said to be stiffer

If the line suddenly stops before curving it means it has broke and therefore is…

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Liquid: weigh in a measuring cylinder then minus the mass of the cylinder, then use equation

Irregular solid: Weigh, then immerse in water and measure increase in volume, then use

WAVES12.1 ­ 12.6

Waves & Vibrations

Longitudinal waves - displacement of particles are parallel to the direction of…

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Measuring Waves

Displacement - the distance and direction a particle moves from its equilibrium position.

Amplitude - the maximum displacement of a particle.

Wavelength - the distance between two adjacent vibrating particles.

Period - the time taken for one complete wave to pass a fixed point.

Frequency - the number…


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