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Meanders
· The definition of Meander is `To follow a winding turning
course'.
· Meanders are sinuous bend in a river.
· They are formed when rivers have low flow conditions. This
is when a rivers channel is straight and channels are seen to
have alternating bars (layers) of sediment on the bed.
· The movement of water over these different sediments
causes the water to weave around these bars.
· As a consequence the rivers bed becomes uneven, with
pools and riffles.
· The riffles direct the maximum velocity towards the banks
of the river. This creates a bank as a result of undercutting.
· An outer concave bank is created.…read more

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More or Meanders
· As a results of the meanders the rivers width does
not increase but the sinuosity does increase.
· The rivers bed on a meander is asymmetrical. This
means that the point bar on the inside of the
meander is shallower than on the inside of the
river.
· The flow is rarely strong enough for the river to
transport material across to the point bar on the
opposite bank. Therefore point bars are most
likely to be maintained by sediment from erosion
at the bluff of the meander upstream.…read more

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Ox-bow lakes
· Oxbow lakes are features of both erosion and deposition.
An oxbow lake is a horseshoe-shape lake separated from
the river.
· Eventually the lake will fill with sediment and become a
meander scar.
· An Oxbow lake is formed by the erosion of the concave
bank in a meander. As the bank is eroded it eventually
breaks and joins the river on the other side. Because the
water will always follow the path of least resistance the
new `straighter' way past the meander is much easier to
navigate and requires less energy. This means that any
water going round an Oxbow lake loses energy resulting in
the lost of carrying capacity. Consequently sediment is
deposited in the lake, eventually sealing the entrance.…read more

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