some notes i have made for revision hope it helps you :)

many condenced notes on relative IGCSE biology information 

  • binomial system, 
  • respiration, 
  • the immune system, heart,
  •  lymphatic system, 
  • veins and arteries,
  •  blood, 
  • fungi, 
  • plants,
  •  animals, 
  • structure of ileum wall, 
  • water potential,
  • malnutrition, 
  • teeth,
  •  food tests, 
  • types of foods, 
  • nutrition, 
  • enzymes, 
  •  active transport, 
  • osmosis, 
  • movement in and out of cells,
  •  root hair cells, 
  • xylem vessels,
  • levels of organization, 
  • parts of cells,
  •  muscle cells, 
  • ciliated epithelial cells, 
  • monocotyledons, 
  • animal cell/ plant cell, 
  • dicotyledons, 
  • characteristics of the 5 vertebrates, 
  • bacteria, 
  • viruses,
  •  nematodes, 
  • mollusks, 
  • classification living organisms, 
  • characteristics of living organi, arthropods classes
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  • Created by: Bianca
  • Created on: 03-12-12 17:00
Preview of some notes i have made for revision hope it helps you :)

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The system for many living organisms was introduced by the Swedish
He gave the Latin name to animals and plants he studied, so that
scientists all over the world would be sure they were dealing with the
same species
each organism was given a two-part name
E.g.----- Homo sapiens (man)
------ Mosca domestica ( house fly )
----- Zea mais ( maize plant)
First name is the GENUS and starts with capital letter ­second
name is the SPECIES and starts with small letter
Olden days they would write it in italic but now we simply underline it
Organisms that have same GENUS name are more closely related to each other e.
g. Homo sapiens ( modern man) and Neanderthals are more closely related forms
than either are to Pithecanthropus erectus ( java man ) another form of extinct
man )…read more

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FISH -covered in scales, fins for movement and stability gills for gas
exchange, lateral line containing vibration sensors
AMPHIBIANS ­ moist skin as well as lungs used for gas exchange , 4 limbs ,
eggs with no shell
frogs !!
REPTILES ­dry scaly skin,4 limbs, , females lay eggs with a lathery shell
Lizards... etc ..
BIRDS ­feathers for insulation, warm blooded, 4 limbs 2 of which are used
as wings, scales on legs, shelled eggs
MAMMLAS-fur for insulation, warm blooded , 4 limbs , give birth to live
young, suckle young on milk from mammary glands
HUMAN…read more

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ORGANISMS Respiration: living organisms need energy to move, grow, repair
and drive life process process carried out in tiny organs called
R- respire
Irritability: living organisms need to be sensitive to changes in
I- irritability/ sensitivity environment so they can react + increase chance of survival they have
sense organs and some way of coordinating stimuli with responses
Nutrition: all organisms must obtain food from growth and repair and
N- nutrition provide them with the energy they need to drive there life process
(Plants make food using process PHOTOSYNTHESIS involves sun light
energy to combine simple inorganic materials to make more complex
G-growth and organic food molecules called AUTOTROPHIC NUTITION)
development Growth and development : increase in size bought about by
increasing number of cells develop over Corse of life E.G : plants grow,
then later produce flowers for reproduction
E- excretion e.g. animals develop from young in to sexually mature adults
Excretion: living things produce toxic waste materials, must be
removed from there bodies. Materials which they have in excess
R-reproduce must also be removed, getting rid of these materials is called
Reproduction: organisms reproduce in order to replace the ones
that die, and maintain there population some forms of reproduction
also encourage variation in species…read more

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: Kingdoms divided into smaller
groups called PHYLA
The largest most basic
groups are kingdoms:
Phyla classes
ANIMAL KINGDOM- Heterotrophic
Classes Orders
FUNGUS KINGDOM- Heterotrophic
feeders, have cell walls and Orders Families
digest food externally
PLANT KINGDOM- Autotrophic feeders Families Genera
BACTERIA KINGDOM-Cells have no Genera Species
definite nucleus
celled organisms that have a
definite nucleus…read more

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ARACHNIDS-body divided into segments, pinted limbs, 4 limbs, no
wings, body divided into 2 main parts E.G spider.
CRUSTACEANS- E.G shrimp, body divided into segments,
jointed limbs, limbs don't appear similar, no wings, two pairs
INSECTS- e.g. human louse, segmented bodies, jointed limbs, 3
pairs of legs, most have two pairs of wings, bodies divided into
three main parts, one pair of antennae.
MYRIAPODS- segmented bodies, jointed limbs, similar pairs of
limbs on most segments, no wings.…read more

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