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Substances are transported from where they enter the body to the cells, or from the cells to where
they are removed from the body, by the circulatory system: There are three main parts to this

1) The heart,
2) The blood vessels
3) The blood.

The heart is an…

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The wall of your heart is almost entirely muscle

1) The muscle is supplied with oxygen by the coronary arteries. (See above)

We have a double circulation system. There are two separate circulation systems

1) One for the lungs
2) One for all other organs of the body.

Blood vessels…

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1) The heart valve tissue might stiffen, preventing the valve from opening fully
2) The heart valve might develop a leak.

Faulty heart valves can be replaced using:

1) Biological valves ­ valves from humans or other mammals
2) Mechanical valves.

Advantages Disadvantages

Biological Do not damage red blood cells…

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6) In other organs oxyhaemoglobin splits up into haemoglobin and oxygen. (concentration of
oxygen is lower)

White blood cells

1) Have a nucleus.
2) They form part of the body's defence system against microorganisms.
3) Fewer of them
4) Some form antibodies or antitoxins
5) Some engulf and digest invading…

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In organ transplants a diseased organ is replaced with a healthy one from a donor.

1) The recipient's antibodies may attack the antigens on the donor organ as they do not
recognise them as part of the recipient's body.

To prevent rejection of the transplanted organ:

1) A donor organ…


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