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Julia Cushion ­ Life After Death Revision




The Spectrum of Views of Life After
Death
Disembodied afterlife
Associated with dualism ­ the belief that humans consist of a physical self (the body) and a
spiritual self (the soul)
Put forward by Plato, worked on by Descartes.
When the body dies,…

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Julia Cushion ­ Life After Death Revision




o Aquinas was a monist, but believed that when the body died the soul could exist as an
independent spiritual substance. He believed that when we die our souls either go to
Hell, purgatory or the Beatific vision)
If I am in purgatory,…

Page 3

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Julia Cushion ­ Life After Death Revision




How can we as individuals reach Nibbana if there is no self?


Plato and the Soul
The Basics
Dualist ­ we have a physical body and a separate non-physical soul
The soul starts and ends up in the world of the forms, and…

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Julia Cushion ­ Life After Death Revision




Aristotle and the Soul
The Basics
Monist ­ the body and soul are one.
The soul cannot be divided from the body; e.g. if our body is an axe, the soul is the ability to chop.
The soul is the formal cause of…

Page 5

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Julia Cushion ­ Life After Death Revision




Descartes and Ryle
Descartes
Substance dualist ­ the body is spatial but non-conscious while the soul is conscious but
non-spatial.
Because the body is simply matter (res extensa) it need something to move it, and this is the soul
(res cogitans).
His argument…

Page 6

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Julia Cushion ­ Life After Death Revision




Dawkins and Russell
Richard Dawkins
Biological materialist
Rejects the soul as a mythological concept.
The notion was invented by ancient people to explain the mysteries of our consciousness ­ can
now be explained by science.
Genetics (and psychology?) provide answers to how our…

Page 7

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Julia Cushion ­ Life After Death Revision




John Hick
Hick's background
Christian philosopher
Contributed most significantly to:
1. Eschatological verification ­ religious language can be verified as true post-mortem.
2. The world is a "vale of soul-making" ­ Hick argues for the Irenaean theodicy that the
world contains evil in…

Page 8

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Julia Cushion ­ Life After Death Revision




A replica would be a completely new biological organism.
There is a break in continuity between the original and the replica.
Identity isn't just about memories ­ a person with Alzheimers is still the same person.




Price, NDEs and ESPs
H.H. Price
The…

Page 9

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Julia Cushion ­ Life After Death Revision




Hume argues that the mind is to fragile to survive death
It's hard to explain how a person who is dead can become themselves again in a new life
We will never know if we survive our own death until we are dead…

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