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Liberal and
Social theories…read more

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Liberal principles
German philosopher Immanuel Kant gave three main ideas:
Reciprocity principle ­ States could develop organisations
and rules to aid cooperation. E.g. United Nations.
Identity principle ­ Certain kinds of society or government
type will make societies to decide not to go to war. E.g. A
republic with a legislative branch that can hold the monarch
in check will be more peaceful than autocracies.
Trade principle ­ Trade promotes peace and increases
state wealth, making conflict less likely as governments will
not want to disrupt any process that adds to their wealth…read more

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Liberal ideas
Liberals dispute the realist notion that narrow
self interest is more rational than mutually
beneficial cooperation .
Neo-liberalism argues that even in anarchic
system of autonomous rational states,
cooperation can emerge through the building
of norms, regimes and institutions.…read more

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Liberal institutionalism
Although states are autonomous, they can join a
world federation such as the United Nations, and
respect their principles even at the cost of short
term gains.
Liberalists believe that international cooperation is
a more rational option for states than resorting to
War and violence are irrational deviations that
result from defective reasoning and that harm
(collective long-term) interests of participating
states…read more

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Collective security
Refers to the formation of broad alliance of most
major actors in an international system for the
purpose of opposing aggression by any actor.
To uphold collective security 2 points need to be met:
1. Members must keep their alliance commitments
to the group
2. Enough members need to agree on what
constitutes aggression…read more

Slide 6

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International regimes
An international regime is a set of rules, norms,
an procedures around which the expectations of
actors converge in a certain issue area E.g. Arms
Participants have similar ideas about what
rules will govern their mutual participation
Helps solve collective goods problems
because everyone knows what everyones
doing…read more

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