Latin Grammar List and Exercises

An extensive grammar guide and excercises for AS Latin Grammar, as well as prose sentences to practice. Useful for GCSE too but has stuff you don't need to know yet!

Disclaimer: This is not my own creation. It is a document I was given by my Latin teacher.

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Page 1

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Syntax Contents

1. The Basic Sentence
2. More on Cases (1)
3. Commands, Prohibitions and Exhortations Pronouns
4. Numerals Prepositions
5. The Relative Pronoun
6. Questions
7. `self' `his'/'her'/'their'
8. Comparison
9. Time, Place, Space
10. Uses of the Infinitive
11. Temporal Clauses (1)
12. Participles (1)
13. Participles (2)…

Page 2

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Note the rule for 3rd declension genitive plurals: ium (rather than um) if:
a) the nom.sing.is one syllable and ends in 2 consonants: eg. urbs
gen.pl. urbium or
b) there are the same number of syllables in nom.sing. and gen.sing.
eg. civis, civis gen.pl. civium
except: pater, mater, frater, iuvenis,…

Page 3

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4. You (sing.) have not given your children many books.
5. My wife, Aurelia, usually goes to the temple with my daughter.
6. The city (of) Rome will not be captured by barbarians.
7. The cowardly soldiers were forced to fight by the general.
8. All the slaves were punished…

Page 4

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One or two important verbs, and a few adjectives, take the genitive. These need to be learnt as you
meet them, though the verb `to remember' can cause difficulties. Use either:
memini, meminisse which is a defective verb (ie. its present goes like a perfect tense, and
therefore for a…

Page 5

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Exercise 4

1. The cowardly soldiers did not deserve the general's praise.
2. We have set sail to Britain relying on favourable winds.
3. The soldiers, tired from the battle, were enjoying a rest.
4. Because we used our weapons well, we easily defeated the enemy.
5. Because there was…

Page 6

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To make an exhortation negative, use ne to introduce it:
e.g. let's not work hard ne diligenter laboremus

NB. when linking two negative phrases, never write `et ne'. Use neu / neve.

4. Make sure you are familiar with all cases of the following pronouns.

a) this (pl. these) hic,…

Page 7

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1. Numbers
You need to be familiar with both cardinal numbers (one, two, three etc) and ordinal numbers
(first, second, third etc.)

Unus, duo, and tres are the only numbers which decline until you get to 200
(ducenti ae a). Note that the genitive of unus is unius (all genders)…

Page 8

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Exercise 7

1. We saw two hundred enemy soldiers on the other riverbank.
2. Twenty of the soldiers pulled the siegeengine under the walls of the town.
3. I will go to the city with two of my slaves.
4. The consul made a speech to all of the people…

Page 9

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It is also the object of its own clause (`whom I saw') and so must be accusative.
i.e.
puella, quam vidi, erat Cornelia

4. Note that Latin prefers pronouns to nouns in the following phrases:

the man who.... is qui (is being preferred to `vir'or `homo')
the woman who... ea…

Page 10

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10. The fields through which we were walking were full of sheep.


Exercise 10

1. Those who fight bravely will win everlasting glory.
2. I took advantage of the opportunity which had been presented to me.
3. The slave by whom the money was stolen will certainly be punished.
4.…

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