Latin Grammar List and Exercises

An extensive grammar guide and excercises for AS Latin Grammar, as well as prose sentences to practice. Useful for GCSE too but has stuff you don't need to know yet!

Disclaimer: This is not my own creation. It is a document I was given by my Latin teacher.

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Syntax Contents
1. The Basic Sentence
2. More on Cases (1)
3. Commands, Prohibitions and Exhortations Pronouns
4. Numerals Prepositions
5. The Relative Pronoun
6. Questions
7. `self' `his'/'her'/'their'
8. Comparison
9. Time, Place, Space
10. Uses of the Infinitive
11. Temporal Clauses (1)
12. Participles (1)
13. Participles (2)
14. Participles (3)
15. Purpose (Final) Clauses
16. Indirect Commands Prevention
17. Result (Consecutive) Clauses
18. Fearing
19. Cause and Concession
20. Impersonal Verbs
21. The Passive of Intransitive Verbs
22. Indirect Questions
23. Indirect Statement (Accusative and Infinitive) (1)
24. Indirect Statement (Accusative and Infinitive) (2)
25. Gerunds and Gerundives
26. Gerundive of Obligation
27. Conditionals
28. Expressions of Doubt and other uses of quin and quominus
29. Temporal Clauses (2) Further uses of the subjunctive
30. More on Cases (2)
31. Comparative Clauses and Correlatives
32. `some'/'any'/'every'
1. The Basic Sentence
1. Verbs: You should be familiar with all indicative tenses, active and passive, (including
irregular verbs). Note that in a simple sentence the negative is non.
2. Nouns: You should know all 5 declensions of nouns.
The vocative is the same as the nominative except for 2nd declension singular, where
us becomes e and ius becomes i (eg. serve, fili)

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Note the rule for 3rd declension genitive plurals: ium (rather than um) if:
a) the nom.sing.is one syllable and ends in 2 consonants: eg. urbs
gen.pl. urbium or
b) there are the same number of syllables in nom.sing. and gen.sing.
eg. civis, civis gen.pl. civium
except: pater, mater, frater, iuvenis, senex, canis, sedes (gen.pl. all um)
c) the noun is neuter with a nom.sing.ending in e, al or ar
eg. mare, maris gen.pl. marium (these also have abl. sing. i and
nom.& acc. pl.…read more

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You (sing.) have not given your children many books.
5. My wife, Aurelia, usually goes to the temple with my daughter.
6. The city (of) Rome will not be captured by barbarians.
7. The cowardly soldiers were forced to fight by the general.
8. All the slaves were punished by Pollio, a cruel master.
9. The consul, a sensible man, gave good advice to the senators.
10. We told the whole story to all our friends.
11. Your (pl.) city is defended by long walls.…read more

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One or two important verbs, and a few adjectives, take the genitive. These need to be learnt as you
meet them, though the verb `to remember' can cause difficulties. Use either:
memini, meminisse which is a defective verb (ie. its present goes like a perfect tense, and
therefore for a past tense, use the pluperfect form memineram) or:
memor oris sum = I am mindful of..…read more

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Exercise 4
1. The cowardly soldiers did not deserve the general's praise.
2. We have set sail to Britain relying on favourable winds.
3. The soldiers, tired from the battle, were enjoying a rest.
4. Because we used our weapons well, we easily defeated the enemy.
5. Because there was too little wind, the ships could not reach the island.
6. Caesar, a general skilled in military strategy, won many victories.
7. The priest will perform a sacrifice and ask the gods for an omen.…read more

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To make an exhortation negative, use ne to introduce it:
e.g. let's not work hard ne diligenter laboremus
NB. when linking two negative phrases, never write `et ne'. Use neu / neve.
4. Make sure you are familiar with all cases of the following pronouns.
a) this (pl. these) hic, haec, hoc
that (pl. those)ille, illa, illud
b) the personal pronouns:ego, tu, nos, vos
c) he, she, it (pl.…read more

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Numbers
You need to be familiar with both cardinal numbers (one, two, three etc) and ordinal numbers
(first, second, third etc.)
Unus, duo, and tres are the only numbers which decline until you get to 200
(ducenti ae a). Note that the genitive of unus is unius (all genders) and the dative (all genders)
is uni (like `ille').…read more

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Exercise 7
1. We saw two hundred enemy soldiers on the other riverbank.
2. Twenty of the soldiers pulled the siegeengine under the walls of the town.
3. I will go to the city with two of my slaves.
4. The consul made a speech to all of the people in the forum.
5. The conspiracy started amongst the poor in the city.
6. Hannibal led the whole army along with several elephants across the Alps.
7.…read more

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It is also the object of its own clause (`whom I saw') and so must be accusative.
i.e.
puella, quam vidi, erat Cornelia
4. Note that Latin prefers pronouns to nouns in the following phrases:
the man who.... is qui (is being preferred to `vir'or `homo')
the woman who... ea quae
the thing which / that which / what.. id quod
and their plurals:
those who / people who... ei qui
the things which / what...…read more

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