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ENCODING IN SHORT TERM AND LONG TERM MEMORY
Baddeley 1966

Aims
To investigate the type of encoding which is preferred by LTM and STM

Procedures
Four Word lists
Acoustically similar (meet/feet/sweet)
Semantically similar (neat/clean/tidy)
Acoustically dissimilar control
Semantically dissimilar ­ control

For STM participants asked to recall the one list…

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The number of digits was then increased by one each time until the participant failed
to recall the sequence correctly. Test was repeated.



Findings
Average STM span was between 5 and 9 items.
Digits recalled better (9.3 items) than letters (7.3 items).
STM span increased with age.

Conclusions
Findings show…

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Criticisms
Low ecological validity ­ not representative of everyday memory demands.
Trigrams are meaningless information and so may be remembered less well
than meaningful information.





DURATION IN LONG TERM MEMORY
Bahrick et al (1975)

Aims
They aimed to demonstrate that memories could endure in order to support the
assumption that…

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Aims
To see if there is a difference between participants' recall of the association to neutral
or negative emotionally charged words and to experimentally test Freuds theory of
repression.

Procedures
First study participants were given word association tests to both neutral words
(window) and to negative emotionally charged words (fear).…

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Findings
At 11 months 86% of UK participants had vivid, detailed and accurate memory
of event (flashbulb memory)
Only 29% of participants from other countries had same detail of memory.

Conclusions
Difference between nationalities suggests public ebvents that have cultural
relevance are more likely to be remembered by individuals of…

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Low ecological validity stories used artificial and unusual. Unconventional.

EYEWITNESS TESTIMONY
Loftus and Palmer (1974)

Aims
To investigate the effects of leading questions and language on immediate recall.

Procedure
45 students
Participants shown film of a car accident involving two cars
Each participant asked questions about speed of two cars…

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