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Slide 1

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3 Stages:
1. Before the trial takes place
2. During the trial (listening to
defence and prosecution)
3. After the trial (deliberation)
Jury Decision Making
Criminal Psychology…read more

Slide 2

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Included
· Investigating factors affecting juries:
-shadow jury
-mock jury
-Daftaly Kapur (2014)
-evaluation
· Factors affecting JDM:
-pre-trial publicity ­ studies
-expert witness testimony ­ studies
-leadership, conformity and minority influence ­ studies
-how evidence is presented (story order vs witness order) ­ studies
· Evaluating JDM
· Characteristics of the defendant and evaluation:
-attractiveness
-gender
-race…read more

Slide 3

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Juries
· 12 jury members selected randomly from the electoral register
· Objections may be made to a limited number of potential jurors- peremptory
challenges. Based on assumptions about the personalities, attitudes and
believes of potential jurors which legal professionals think will influence their
judgement about the defendant. Allowed to eliminate as many potential
jurors as they like with reason
· Peremptory challenges allows attorneys for each side to question potential
jurors e.g. long questionnaires asking about personal experiences and beliefs
· Lawyers tend to rely on implicit personality theories and cultural stereotypes
in order to form their impressions of others. They want to use this information
to select jurors who will be sympathetic to their client.
· Suggested that occupation is an important influence factor e.g. engineering
types likely to be unemotional, athletes lacking in sympathy for victims and
butchers unlikely to be shocked by violent crime ­ Fulero and Penrod 1990…read more

Slide 4

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What is Jury Decision Making?
· The jury have to weigh up the evidence presented to them and decide on
the guilt or innocence of the defendant. It's presumed that the jury is
capable of making this decision in a rational and logical way, however
psychological research has proved otherwise...
· Harrower (1996)- jurors tend to believe that our memory and perception
show an accurate record of events but psychological research has shown
memory to be an active and reconstructive process. We tend to remember
what we think may have happened but not necessarily what did happen
· Juries now have to deliberate in secret- illegal to ask jurors about their
decisions and so studying JDM is difficult. Illegal to speak to jury members
while the trial is in progress and no recording equipment is allowed in the
courtroom ­ mock juries and shadow juries to overcome this issue…read more

Slide 5

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Mock Juries
· Re-enactments of a courtroom in which participants will take part in a
staged trial, each with a different role e.g. judge, jury member etc
· Participants are asked the consider the case and make judgements on
evidence presented in written summarised scenario (sometimes
film/video)
· The type of judgements made include degree of responsibility to both
parties, verdict and at times of sentencing…read more

Slide 6

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Evaluation of Mock Juries
· Strict control over variables allows for a clear cause and effect to be found
· Allows investigation of variables e.g. appearance, race, age etc. so we can see what
affects jury decision making (one of the most useful practices)
· However, there are no consequences as they are not actually convicting anyone so
may make decisions less seriously
· Samples are often student volunteers, small sample sizes less than 12 people, not
representative of a real jury
· Scenarios are brief and lack the complexities of real life. Not the same as a real trial in
sense of time or length or in a court, no appearances of witnesses- all in written
document
· Short re-enactments are not representative of a real life trial e.g. anxiety, shock of
evidence etc.
· Lacks external validity as it's very artificial and does not represent a real jury so it
cannot be generalised…read more

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