Japanese Grammar

Verb conjugations, different grammar patterns useful for GCSE/AS/A2. Includes all patterns from Edexcel Japanese AS/A2 Specification.

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Japanese Grammar Bible
Group 1
English Kanji/ P.F stem form form form Potential Passive Causative Volitional
to buy
to write
to speak
to stand
to read
to die
to return
Group 2:
To eat
To see

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Page 2

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To go
To come
To do/play
Plain form:
`present' (less formal than form)
+ = because.
(Can also be used with form in past. Andform)
+ = I think that...
+ = when/ at the time when...
+ = if
o The action afterwards must be a direct consequence of the previous statement.
+ / = probably
+= maybe
+ = it's expected that...
+ = no wonder/ so that's why...…read more

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I don't know whether this book is interesting or not.
in middle of sentence ­ embedded question = if/whether
o E.g.
Do you know if/whether Mr. Tanaka will come??
+ = I hear that/I heard that/people say that
o Used to express information which the speaker has heard from someone else
o For nouns add or before
o For adjectives + or beforehand.…read more

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I have decided that...
+ = to make it a rule to...
+ = to come to/reach the point where...
+ = i make sure that/ I see to it that...
+ = I make an effort/make sure to...
`plain past' (less formal than )
Can add `' to make form which is used for joining verbs.
o (I did this and this... not necessarily in order)
+ = if
o e.g. X
If Mr X comes, I will go home.…read more

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After I did my homework, I watched TV.
+ = have you ever...?
`plain' negative (less formal than )
+ = you had better not...
+ +/+ = you must... (remember to remove the final of )
+ . = please don't.
It's okay not do... (remember to remove the final of )
+ = without...
o E.g.
I went to school without doing my homework.…read more

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Place stem . = I go to ­ to do ...
+ = do something too much/ excessively
+ = it is difficult to...
+ = it is easy to...
+ () = way of doing something
+ = it looks like/seems that/appears that
o Used from something in 1st person has observed (quick glance)
Used to join other verbs together
Must be in the order that they occurred when joining vbs.
+ = please do...
+ = it's okay to do/ you may...…read more

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I will go, even if it rains.
+ = continues to/carry on...
o e.g. -
Because it is interesting, I intend to continue reading Mr. Yamata's book.
+ = come to...
o e.g. -
I have gradually come to understand Japan's culture.
+ = to prepare something in advance / in preparation
+ = to do something completely (and regret it)
+ = I want...…read more

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I got someone to do something
+ = did ... for me
o E.g.
My mom made a cake for me.
Can also just be used as `to give'.
o E.g.
Kiran gave me a book.
The Volitional Form:
On its own is used to say `let's do'...
+ = I will..., I am doing to.../ I think I will (firm decision)
o E.g. -
I will study Japanese at University.
o If you change to= I am thinking of...…read more

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The Suffering Passive:
Is formed in the same way as the passive, but has a slightly different meaning.
It puts the emphasis on the action done to the person (subject) and suggests that it hurt/annoyed/inconvenienced them in any way.
o E.g.
I had my letter read by my mom.
( = sufferer, = causer, = object.)
The Causative:
Is to say to make/let/allow someone to do something (depends on translation)
E.g.…read more

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VbA (P.F) VbB (P.F) adj
Which is ..., doing VbA or VbB?
VbA (P.F) adj
VbA is ...
Relative Clauses:
Way of describing a noun...
Description (P.F) Noun + ... sentence ending.
o e.g. ()
The magazine (which I bought in Japan) is easy to read.
Remember that the description (brackets part) goes before the noun it is describing.
It describes a verb/action as a noun.…read more



This looks really good. I wish I could use it though, I've only just started japanese.

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