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Japanese Grammar Bible

Group 1

English Kanji/ P.F stem form form form Potential Passive Causative Volitional

to buy

to write

to speak

to stand

to read

to die

to return


Group 2:

To eat

To see

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To go

To come
To do/play

Plain form:
`present' (less formal than form)

+ = because.
(Can also be used with form in past. Andform)

+ = I think that...

+ = when/ at the time when...

+ = if
o The action afterwards must be a direct…

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+ = if it true that/if it is the case that...

+ / = in order to... (the thing you want to do goes first)

= whether
o E.g.
I don't know whether this book is interesting or not.

in middle of sentence ­ embedded question = if/whether
o E.g.…

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+ = it has been decided/arranged that...
(arranged for you)

+ = it is a tradition/custom to...

+= I have decided that...

+ = to make it a rule to...

+ = to come to/reach the point where...

+ = i make sure that/ I see to it that...


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o E.g.
After I did my homework, I watched TV.

+ = have you ever...?

`plain' negative (less formal than )

+ = you had better not...

+ +/+ = you must... (remember to remove the final of )

+ . = please don't.

It's okay not do... (remember…

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+ ... = while...

Place stem . = I go to ­ to do ...

+ = do something too much/ excessively

+ = it is difficult to...

+ = it is easy to...

+ () = way of doing something

+ = it looks like/seems that/appears that
o Used…

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+ /= you must not... (don't forget the )

+ = to try... (for the first time)

+ = even if
o E.g.
I will go, even if it rains.

+ = continues to/carry on...
o e.g. -

Because it is interesting, I intend to continue reading Mr. Yamata's book.…

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+ = someone did something for me/ I got someone to do something

+ = did ... for me
o E.g.

My mom made a cake for me.

Can also just be used as `to give'.
o E.g.

Kiran gave me a book.

The Volitional Form:
On its own is…

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The Suffering Passive:
Is formed in the same way as the passive, but has a slightly different meaning.
It puts the emphasis on the action done to the person (subject) and suggests that it hurt/annoyed/inconvenienced them in any way.
o E.g.
I had my letter read by my mom.

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VbA (P.F) VbB (P.F) adj

Which is ..., doing VbA or VbB?

VbA (P.F) adj

VbA is ...

Relative Clauses:
Way of describing a noun...

Description (P.F) Noun + ... sentence ending.
o e.g. ()
The magazine (which I bought in Japan) is easy to read.
Remember that the…




This looks really good. I wish I could use it though, I've only just started japanese.

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