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Italian Unification 1815-1871
This is primarily written for Pre-U history. (This is one possible topic in section 4) However, if
you're also doing this in your exam it's pretty universal as I've written in as much detail as I
can about the occurrences of this period.…read more

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Piedmont joins the Crimean War
1856: Congress of Paris
1857: Foundation of the National Society
1859: Austria declaration of war on Piedmont
Battle of Magneta and Solferino
1860: Plebiscites in Central Duchies in favour of unity with Piedmont
Garibaldi enters Naples
1861: Victor Emmanuel II proclaimed king of Italy
Death of Cavour
1861: Garibaldi's attempt to capture Rome
1866: Italy declares war on Austria
Union of Venetia
1867: Garibaldi's attempt to capture Rome
1870: Occupation of Rome by Italian Army
Patriotic Italian historians (e.g.…read more

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Value: The
past is forced into a preconceived pattern for political reasons, so is not very good history.…read more

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Italy prior to 1815 (background)
Points to Consider
In 1815, `Italy' was merely a geographical expression
Very few believed a unified state would occur
Pre-Napoleonic Italy
In 1796 when Napoleon's army had overrun Italy, then the
Peninsula had comprised of a complicated patchwork of states and
principalities. There were 13 states in total.…read more

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Italy in 1815
The Vienna Settlement in 1815 was a vital congress that determined the immediate future of
Europe. Italy was to be under Austrian influence with it directly controlling Venetia and Lombardy. The old
rulers were admitted to return.
Piedmont's Victor Emmanuel I returned as King
Sicily and Naples had Ferdinand restored
The restored monarchs have long been seen by historians as attempting to turn back the clock to
Pre-Napoleonic times. Traditional historians claimed there was a struggle between progression and reaction
during 1815-1861.…read more

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This was the first area to revolt in 1820.
Political Ideas
Liberals: they wished for a say in government and to have elected representatives and a
constitutional monarchy. They wanted rights such as the freedom of speech and fair trials. But they
disagreed with, Republic democracy and violence.
Radicals: they wanted social reforms, a fairer distribution of wealth and political power to lie with
the people and not with government unless the government is elected by the people not just
landowners.…read more

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Revolutions of 1820-21
The dramatic change from quite liberal for ten years to incredibly repressive was bound to spark
some kind of liberal feelings. Surprisingly only three states actually revolted and it was only due to the
Spanish revolution that such an outbreak began.
1818 King Ferdinand increased the church's power, allowing it to censor papers, books etc.
Freedom of speech was limited. Public spending cut, reduced education.
Poverty, corrupt government and restrictions on personal freedom caused revolutions.…read more



This could be the most amazing thing I have ever seen, next to jesus, this is my next saviour, thank you thank you thank you

Izzy Perrin

Aww I'm glad it's helped you! Thanks! And good luck!

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