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· To label someone is to attach a meaning
or definition to them e.g. naming someone
as stupid.
· Studies have shown how labelling can
have a damaging or a strengthening of
someone's ability and attitudes.…read more

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Labelling in Secondary Schools
· Becker 1971- carried out a study in 60 Chicago school
teachers and he found out what they saw as an ideal
· He found out that the teachers believed that the middle
class values and attitudes were the closest to the ideal
pupil and the working class, the furthest away.
· Cicourcel and Kitsuse 1963- They found faults in the
way in which schools assess ability in their students.
They often labelled them as trouble and a failure when
they were working class and had ability when they were
middle class sometimes without even assessing their
individual ability.…read more

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Labelling in Primary Schools
· Rist 1970- He did a study into kindergartens. He
found out that teacher's used personal
background information to place them into
groups. She called the well- behaved children
(often middle class) were called the tigers. Then
the "naughty" children (often working class) the
· This then gave the class and the individual a
label towards other members of their class which
could result to low self confidence and difficulty
achieving for the clowns and vice versa for the
tigers.…read more

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High and Low Status Knowledge
· Keddie 1971- She found out that pupil scan be
labelled to have high or low status knowledge.
· She did a study in schools that were taught the
same syllabus for a humanities subject.
· She found out that the schools taught A Stream
knowledge had a higher level of knowledge
taught to them than C Stream. This then
increases the complexity of what A are being
taught meaning that if they wanted to move up
from C to A they couldn't as they would be too
far behind.…read more

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· Self- fulfilling prophecy is a prediction that
comes true simply by virtue of it having
been made. Some theorists believe that
labelling causes this to happen and then
their lives are shaped by this one label.…read more

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