Industrial Manufacture Notes

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Unit 3: Design & Manufacture Textiles Revision Notes
Fashion is one of the most important industries in the world, and is made up of a number of inter-related
and complex processes. New textile and fashion products are continually appearing in the shops. People
buy new products, eventhough ones they already own may not be worn out. They want the latest fashions
or technological developments, because they are concerned with their image of themselves, and how
other people see them. But the world of fashion is not just about pandering to peoples illusions about
themselves; it is a multi-million pound industry driven by the need to make profit.
This complex industry has three essential parts - designing, manufacturing and distribution.
Manufacturers need to make interesting new and different products if they are to stay in
business. Many manufacturing companies employ a designer to come up with new ideas. Once the
products have been manufactured, they have to be sent to the retailers so that they can be sold to
consumers. The process of distribution, i.e. getting the products from the manufacturer to the
retail customer, can be further broken down into marketing, merchandising, advertising and
The designer needs to constantly come up with new ideas before developing them into an end product
which is appropriate for the intended market. Often a designer will start with a product that is already
selling well and make minor modifications to bring it up to date, or make it look slightly different so that
people will be tempted to buy a new one. A designer will generally be expected to work with the
manufacturer in order to ensure that products are capable of being manufactured efficiently and safely,
and to the final specifications.
The designer needs to work with the production team to make sure that:
Products can be manufactured in quantity.
The products they design are safe for the end user.
The products are safe to manufacture.
The products do not offend anyone.
Environmental issues are considered.
A profit can be made.
Designers usually work with a theme, e.g. Japanese/Indian/Mexican Culture. They need a source of
inspiration to help them think of new ideas. Sometimes they look at the work of artists, e.g. Klimt, Matisse.
A mood board which may contain a collection of images, fabric, technique and component samples, and
different colour ways may be put together to inspire the designer.
They visit trade fairs and catwalk shows and study trend forecasts to see in which direction fashion
trends are moving. Fashion trends often repeat themselves and designers will look to other eras for
inspiration, e.g. the 1960s, 1980s.
Fashion products are made for many different markets and a design house may have different line with different
levels of quality, price, target market, and method of production. This may include couture (one-off or bespoke),
Ready-to-wear (Pret-a-porter), diffusion lines, limited editions, budget ranges.
A designer may use CAD to help develop ideas.
Some of the many ways that CAD can help a designer include:

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Unit 3: Design & Manufacture Textiles Revision Notes
Using computer programmes to experiment with colour and texture.
Designing repeat patterns for fabric prints, embroidery designs, knitted or woven pattern.
Making a virtual prototype to see what a product might look like in different colour ways and
fabric textures, and on a human form.
Developing pattern templates.
Provide a database of images which can be adapted and changed as required.
Communicate ideas through presentation boards.…read more

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Unit 3: Design & Manufacture Textiles Revision Notes
When a final design has been chosen for bulk manufacture a pattern or template is made.
Pattern Design System (PDS)
If it is a fashion product, the patterns will be developed from basic blocks and will probably be done on
computer using a Pattern Design System (PDS).
If the product has been manufactured before, the existing pattern will be used again.…read more

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Unit 3: Design & Manufacture Textiles Revision Notes
Enough fabric to make the products will be ordered. Before it is cut into pattern shapes it is cut in to
pattern shapes it will be checked over in the warehouse. The fabric will be inspected to look for flaws
such as imperfections in the dyeing or printing pattern, holes or frayed sections.…read more

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Unit 3: Design & Manufacture Textiles Revision Notes
The machinery and the operator skills are very specific for the job in hand - A number of
operatives work on the production line and each one does one part of the manufacture before
passing the product to the next person who does a different job.
Workers become skilled at doing one part of the manufacture but may need to be re-trained to do
other types of work.…read more

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Unit 3: Design & Manufacture Textiles Revision Notes
Vertical Manufacturing
Vertical manufacturing is where the company does their own designing, manufacturing and distribution,
and allows lead times to be shortened - Marks and Spencer and Zara are two popular high street retailers
who operate this system.
Communicating with International Manufacturers
Many textile products are designed in one country and made in another.…read more

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Unit 3: Design & Manufacture Textiles Revision Notes
Finished products are pressed before leaving the factory. A steam dolly is a specialist pressing machine
used for skirts trousers and dresses.
A steam dolly is used to press some garments.
The dolly is inflated inside the clothes using steam and air which makes the creases fall out.
Pressing of completed garment can also be controlled by computers.
A computer controlled pressing machine can store different pressing programmes in its memory.…read more

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Unit 3: Design & Manufacture Textiles Revision Notes
These changes coincided with technological developments which allowed standard designs to be
adapted at low cost.
Products could be `mass customised' - individualised and adapted to different requirements at an
affordable price.
Mass production was about making more of the same & mass customisation is about producing the
right product for an individual consumer.…read more

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Unit 3: Design & Manufacture Textiles Revision Notes
More efficient planning of processes and machine requirements - This is particularly useful in
businesses with multiple manufacturing sites.
Visibility of all orders and their status - It provides the planner with a mechanism that can be used to
efficiently manage free capacity and the allocation of orders at the most appropriate
Efficient planning for style change over.
The facility to track orders throughout the supply chain, to deal quickly with transport and delivery
issues.…read more

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Unit 3: Design & Manufacture Textiles Revision Notes
Computer modelling and simulation has made rapid progress in recent years and programmes have been
developed to allow complex manufacturing environments to be varied, tested and evaluated without the
need for expensive and disruptive factory floor trials.
CIM in Relation to Fabric Quality
The preparation of fabrics for sewing includes a final inspection to eliminate or minimise defects
and to apply of any finishes which will facilitate later operations, including cutting, fusing, sewing,
pressing and garment colouration.…read more


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