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Page 1

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R ATES OF REACTION
The rate of a chemical reaction is determined by HOW FAST a reaction occurs (this is the rate of
reaction):




T YPES OF REACTION :
VERY FAST ­ an explosion e.g. dynamite
FAST ­ group 1 metals + water
SLOW ­ zinc + acid
VERY SLOW…

Page 2

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Catalysts Enzymes

Manganese Dioxide ­ Making O2 from hydrogen
Amylase
peroxide

Platinum, Rhodium & Palladium ­ used in car
Protease
exhaust pipes

Nickel - making margarine Lipase




ATOMIC S TRUCTURE &
C HEMICAL B ONDING
Nucleus has protons and
neutrons

Electrons found in a shell
around the nucleus
Protons

relative…

Page 3

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P OTASSIUM ' S E LECTRONIC S TRUCTURE




2,8,8,1
K




Atoms transfer electrons in chemical bonds to try and achieve a full outer shell ­ as it is MORE STABLE.


I ONS
Ions are electrically atoms or groups of atoms. They are formed by the loss or gain of electrons…

Page 4

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E XAMPLES :



Na Cl


NaCl




Na Cl




Mg O



MgO




Mg O

Page 5

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Al F


AlF3




Al F



L ATTICE S TRUCTURE
A way of displaying regular patterns within atoms of oppositely charged ions is used a lattice structure:



+ - + - +
- + - + -
Lattice of NaCl



+ - + - +
I ONIC S UBSTANCES
THEY HAVE…

Page 6

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F ORMATION



H H Cl Cl H Cl




O
O O C

H H H H


H

N O O O

H H



M ETALLIC B ONDING Positive metal ions
+ + +
+ +
`Sea' of negative ions


+ + +
D EFINITION
A metallic bond is a giant…

Page 7

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S TRUCTURE
C ARBON DIOXIDE :


C O C

·Double bonds ·Structured in a line ·It is stable (has a full outer shell)


D IAMOND



Single covalent Bonds
All bonds are strong
No weak Bonds
Tetrahedron of Carbon atoms




G RAPHITE
Hexagonal shape of c atoms
Only 3 covalent bonds…

Page 8

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T HE S TRUCTURE D IAGRAM
Structure



Giant Silicon Simple

Carbon
Anything
Ionic Almost all
All
covalent
Metals Graphite substances
Diamond



Giant Structure Molecular Structure

Substances that are made up of a mixed number of
Substances made up of huge numbers of atoms, or
atoms shown by the molecular formula…

Page 9

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M ACROMOLECULE
A macromolecule is an extremely large molecule containing a very large number of atoms.




R EACTIVITY SERIES
Element Cold water/steam Dilute Acid

Potassium
React very vigorously with cold water Reacts vigorously to form a
Sodium
to form a solution of the metal metal salt + hydrogen
Lithium hydroxide…

Page 10

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E XAMPLES
2Na+O Na2O

Mg + O MgO

2K + 2H2O H2+2KOH

Ca + 2H2O Ca(OH)2 + H2

3AgNO3 + Fe 3Ag + Fe(NO3)3

MgSO4 + Cu CuSO4 + Mg

R USTING
Fe2 + 3O2 Fe2O3
A REDOX reaction will occur and the iron will be oxidised. Rusting normally occurs…

Comments

johnny zhang

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OMG, its sooooo neat, how could you have the time to create this???

clare_

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OMGGGGGG these notes are amazing!!!! THANKYOU SOOOOO SOOOO SOOOO MUCH :D

Hafsa

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is this only fr paper 1?

Paige

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do you have any other full notes for other subjects?

Shail Shah

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#respect. Apart from the highly admirable fact that the notes are very neat and to-the-point, your kind gesture of sharing this with others is truly appreciated. Thanks once again.

Hannah

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OMG thank you so much this is so beautiful and helpful and I'm crying since exams are only 2 months away but this has saved my life thank you thank you

Hannah

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OMG thank you so much this is so beautiful and helpful and I'm crying since exams are only 2 months away but this has saved my life thank you thank you

paddlergirl1306

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AMAZING !!!!!

mirandaferg

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<3

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