Identify and explain resons why psychology should adopt the scientific approach- ESSAY PLAN

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Identify and explain reasons why psychology should adopt the scientific approach
ESSAY PLAN
The features of science: > Before it can be concluded whether psychology should adopt
the
psychology approach, a criteria must first be identified
> The scientific approach is characterised as having the following
features: theory construction (a general system used to explain
principles of a phenomenon), hypothesis testing (prediction
which leads to the discovery of laws and principles), general
laws,
empirical methods (evidence given by data collection), subject
matter (what is being studied) and a paradigm (an agreed set of
assumptions, methods and terms shared by those working in
the
field)
Empirical Support: > Involves the use of the experiment
> Operationalise variables IV and DV, this means the method can
easily
be replicated by other researchers, compare results in a meta
analysis
allowing for a more reliable conclusion to be made
> By carrying out the experiment in a laboratory environment,
extraneous variables can be controlled, allowing a cause and effect
relationship to be identified increases internal validity
> Manipulating IV can be argued to be unethical in psychology as in
some cases this would involve manipulating an individual's cognition
and emotions= the study carried out by Watson to investigate
classical
conditioning, left the subject with a phobia protection of
participants?
> Operationalising variables can be hard to know if this has been done
effectively when the variable being tested cannot be directly
observed
= Craik and Tulving's investigation into deep level processing
operationalised the levels by asking participants to process each
word
from a memory test at one of three levels: structural (17%), acoustic
(37%) and somatic (65%), however due to it being difficult to isolate
levels of processing, it could be possible participants were carrying
out
all three, effecting the validity of results
> Ecological validity Lab experiments have low ecological validity (the
extent to which the findings are able to be generalised to real life
settings) due to the control and manipulation of variables which
would not occur in real life= Godden and Baddeley investigated how

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Hypothesis testing: > Important part of the scientific approach because it means that
theories can be falsified and therefore progress, from this future
predictions can be made
> However results from studies, particularly in the area of social
psychology, have shown that causes of behaviour are influenced by
the period of time e.g Asch (1946) results showed conformity to be
37%, this would be higher in the McCarthy era patriotism e.…read more

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Overall...: >Some parts of psychology are suitable to the scientific approach but for others
it
weakens are understanding
> Karl Popper believed a theory should be falsifiable and subjected to attempts
at
refutation, in other words the researcher should be able to imagine some
occurrence that would contradict it.…read more

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