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Page 1

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Biological (came up in the June 2014 paper, so unlikely to come up for June 2014)

AO1 ­ Key assumptions underlying the theory

Darwinian Theory ­ the evolutionary basis of behaviour (eg. fight and flight) and the
notion that animals are inherently similar to humans, and that we can thus…

Page 2

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BUT ­ biological treatments often have negative side effects
Only lead to partial improvement in symptoms
Other factors must be involved
W ­ Deterministic
Biological determinism ­ genes/neurotransmitters responsible for our behaviour
e.g. OCD caused by low levels of serotonin
Ignores role of free will
Resulting implications for society
People…

Page 3

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Info is coded, processed, stored, retrieved from memory and a response is
produced.
Information processing
Mental processes = information processing
Involves transforming, storing and retrieving info from memory
The use of models provides a mechanistic view of the human mind, which is useful
in helping us to understand how we…

Page 4

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Human attributes such as consciousness and self-awareness remain a mystery to
cognitivists
The idea of a `man as a machine' is seen as too simplistic and ignoring emotional
and social facts in human behaviour
E.g. cognitive explanation for depression largely ignores the impact of emotions
Dehumanising
BUT ­ less reductionist…

Page 5

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`Psychology as the behaviourist views it is a purely objective, experimental branch
of natural science which needs introspection as little as do sciences of chemistry
and physics. It is granted that the behaviour of animals can be investigated without
appeal to consciousness'

AO2 ­ Strengths and weaknesses

S ­ Use…

Page 6

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Such as offending ­ conditioning
Mechanistic/overly simplistic
Ignores the role of genes and cognitive processes
`Degrading and scientifically inaccurate'
IN CONTRAST ­ SLT takes into account the role of these mediating cognitive
factors in learning
W ­ Nurture, rather than nature ­
All human behaviour = environmental through conditioning
Ignores…

Page 7

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BUT ­ studies such as bobo doll study criticised on the grounds of ecological
validity
Children may also respond to demand characteristics = lowers validity of study
S ­ Adopts a compromise position in the free will/determinism debate
Soft determinism ­ Bandura proposed the idea of reciprocal determinism ­
interaction…

Page 8

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AO1 ­ Key assumptions

Unconscious processes ­ mental processes can occur at conscious, pre-conscious
and unconscious levels. Human behaviour largely determined by unconscious
motives and conflict. Unconscious stems from the three elements/tripartite
structure of the personality ­ id, superego and ego, which are all in constant
conflict.
Defence mechanisms ­…

Page 9

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Many patients he treated were NOT fully recovered
W ­ Deterministic and pessimistic
Humans are inherently bad
Perspectives on childhood experience/psychosexual development = troubling = i.e.
Oedipus etc.
Inappropriate and overstated?
Also, many children that have negative experiences/phases in childhood go on to
have perfectly normal adult lives
W ­…

Page 10

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Humans are active agents, we have the power to choose and decide on our own
behaviour. Person centered therapy encourages clients to develop their own
solutions ­ optimistic
Places responsibility on the individual and sees them as capable of change
BUT ­ concept of free will not consistent with assumptions…

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