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ICT - Hardware
Software
These are programs that the computer runs.
Programs are stored instructions that tell the computer what to do.

Input devices
These are peripherals that are used to capture data and send it to a
computer system. Whatever data they capture, they have to convert it to…

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Hard discs are usually built into the computer.
The hard disc medium is made of metal and is inside the hard disk drive.
Hard discs hold a lot of data, which can be retrieved very quickly.
Hard discs normally store the computer's operating system, the applications
and the user's data.…

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Switches
All data and instructions are stored in a computer in bit patterns.
Every memory location in RAM in a typical computer is made from 8
switches, which can either be on or off.
The state of these switches can be used to code data. A switch being on
or…

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Networks allow tight control over who has access to what data.

Disadvantages
Networks can be expensive to set up, both the hardware infrastructure and
the expertise to create them.
Networks are vulnerable to security problems. Much effort is spent
preventing unauthorised access to data and software.
If a server causes…

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Advantages
Very fast ­ all data traffic is in the same direction so there should be no
collisions.

Disadvantages
Total dependence upon the one cable ­ if it fails, the whole network goes
down.

Most networks include one or more servers. The other computers are called
clients. The clients make…

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Extra hardware required such as hubs, switches and wiring centres.

Servers
Servers have more RAM and disc space than clients. This is to allow them to
handle many requests for services more or less at the same time.

Small networks sometimes do not have a server. The clients can share…

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Data transfer
Transfer speed
Data transfer is measured in bits per second.

Networks
Networks are sometimes slow to use:
o Software takes a long time to load
o Saving and retrieving data is slow
o Logging on is slow

Many things can affect the performance of a network:
The topology…

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