Slides in this set
· Determinism is the belief that a determinate
set of conditions can only produce one
possible set of outcomes given the fixed laws
· Determinism has 2 main beliefs:
1) Universal causality- every event has a cause
2) Causal necessity- given fixed set of conditions
only one outcome possible…read more
UNIVERSAL CAUSATION- `EVERY EVENT
HAS A CAUSE'
· Illustration- If there is water on a kitchen floor,
everyone must assume there is a causal
explanation as to how that got there, such as a
burst pipe. If the pipe did not burst, there would
not have been water on the kitchen floor. If there
is no cause= miracle?
· The laws of nature are universal, there is no part
of the universe where they do no apply.
· So every physical event is in accordance with
these laws- every event has a cause.…read more
CAUSAL NECESSITY- GIVEN FIXED SET OF
CONDITIONS ONLY ONE OUTCOME IS POSSIBLE
· Illustration- `the burst pipe caused the Kitchen
floor become wet' is about this occasion. If
another occasion, burst pipe but the floor
remained dry- must something different between
this situation and the original situation ( house
freezing- Ice). If pipe caused mess leads us say all
factors remaining same `were pipe burst, water on
the kitchen floor'
· Regularity important concept within Causality-
same cause= same effect if same situation.…read more
HOW DOES DETERMINISM
UNDERMINE HUMAN ACTION?
· Our actions are caused
· Because we explain our actions in terms of motivation- kind
of psychological causation
How does determinism threaten free will?
· Our actions are events
· Therefore, our actions have causes
· Because of these causes, no action possible other than
what we actually do
· If we couldn't do any other action then we do not have free
· This is because free will involves us being able to choose
between doing different actions…read more
IMPORTANT DISTINCTIONS BETWEEN ACTION AND PHYSICAL CAUSATION
· Determinism does not entirely threaten free will if there are distinctions
between my actions and physical causations
· There are 3 main distinctions:
1. Actions- what we do Physical causation- things that just happen
Illustrate- crop circle
physical causation: natural forces- whirlwinds or magnetic phenomena, once
establish cause + how works- end.
Action: people deliberately- show that someone did it, why, success? Unlike
events actions don't just happen.
2. Actions- intentional Physical causation- not intentional
Illustrate- compare deliberately pushing someone to accidentally knocking
them over( tripped). Both body moved particular way and has the same
effect. But one case you do something and you move your body and other
something happens to you- movement on your body is imposed.
3. Actions responsible Physical causation- not responsible
Illustrate- blamed destroying crops or praised beauty design but wind cannot
be praised or blamed.…read more