- Hard Determinism
- Definition: The teaching that denies that humanity has free will and believes that all actions have a prior cause. It removes moral responsibility for actions.
- Humans may make a choice believing that it was free will, however every event that went before has led to this "Free choice," so therefore it had already been determined.
- Very strict and rigid in the belief that everything is determined and we are not free at all to act in a different way.
- We cannot be held morally responsible for our actions as we didn't chose to commit them.
- Hospers: There is always something within us that urges us to make a choice that we believe was the result of our free will. We aren't always aware of these urges in our choice-making, however we have all probably made choices and not remembered why and how we made them.