Hydrogen for the future

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192
193
Hydrogen for the future
Development of fuel cell vehicles
I
nt
h ef
uture,
a`h ydr
o gene c onomy '
basedo
nf uel ce l
l
sma
yw e ll
cont
ri
buteg
reat
lyt
oo
u r
ever
i
ncreasi
ng
ener
g yn
e eds.
Ac urrent focu s
i
s thed
e vel
opme nt
of
fu el
cell
s as al
ter
n at
et
otheu
seo
f f
ini
teo
il
basedf
uel
s
i
n car
s.
Sci
entist
si
n t
he cari
nd u st
rya
r ed
e vel
o pi
ngf
u el
c ell
v ehi
cle s(
F C Vs)­t
h es eu
seh yd r
ogeng
a so
r
hydr
og en r
ich
fuels
Hydrogenr
ichf
uels
in cl
ud eme
th anol,
nat
ural
gas
a ndp
e trol.
The sea
remi
x edw
ithw
ater
andc
onver
tedi
nt
o
hydr
og eng
a sb
ya no n b oard`
reformer'
. Ther
ef
orme r
op eratesa
t 250 Ct og
enerat
et heh
ydrogeng
a s­
f
or
exa mple:
CH3OH+
H 2O 3H2 +
C O2
The
hydr
ogen
can
then
be
fed
int
o f
uel
cel
ls
.
Al
ter
n at
ely
, duel
c
e l
l
s haveb
eend
e velopedi
nw hi
chme
thanol
i
sthef
uel
r
ather
t
h ant
heh
ydr
ogen.
Ther
ea
r
e
obvi
ous advant
ages of
a
me t
han ol
f
uel
cell
compa r
ed wi
th
use of
hydr
ogen gas:
× A
li
quid
fuel
i
s easi
er
to
stor
e than
hydrogen
gas.
× Me thanol
can
be generat
ed f
rom bioma ss.
Methanol
basedf
uel
cel
lsa
rei
nt
h ee
arlyd
a yso
f
development
.
Theyc
ur
rent
lyg
ener
ateas
mal
l
amount
of
power.
Not
e al
so t
hat
car
b on
dioxi
de i
s pr
od uces
as a
w ar
e emi
ssi
on.
Advantages of cell vehicles
Fuel
cel
l
vehicl
e s
h a ve
ad van t
age
over
convent
ional
pet
rol
and
diesel
vehi
cl
es.
Less pollution and less CO2.
× C omb ust
ion o fh
y dr
oc arbon f
ue l
s pr
odu cesC
O 2,w
h i
ch cont
ri
butes t
o the gr
e enhouse ef
fect
.
Incomp l
etec
o mbusti
onp r oducest
oxi
cc
a rbonmo
n oxide,
w hi
chmu
s t ber
emo vedb
yac
a tal
yti
c
co nve r
ter.
× H ydro gen
rich f
uels
pro duce
only
a smal
l
amo unt
of
C02 and
air
pol
lut
ants.
Greater efficiency
× Ap e tr
o l
engi
nei
slesst
han2
0 % eff
ici
ent
i
nc onvert
ingc
hemical
energyb
yt
hec ombust
iono
f pet
rol
.
Mu ch
o f
t
he chemi
cal
en er
gy
is
w ast
ed as
heat.
× H yd roge nf
uel
cel
l
vehicl
esa
re4
0 60% eff
ici
ent
inc
onvert
ingt
hef
uel
se
n ergy.
Thi
sme
an st
hat
f
uel
c ons ump ti
on
d r
ops
b y
mo r
e t
han hal
f
comp ared
to
petr
ol
or
diesel
powered
car.
Storage of hydrogen
Themo
s t
o bvi
ousp
r obl
em i
ns
tori
ngh ydrogeni
sthat
iti
sag asw
i t
hav
e ryl
owb
o i
li
ngp
o i
n t
.
G asesa
ref
a r
mo r
ed
i ff
icultt
os to r
et
hanl
iqui
dss
u cha
sp
e t
rol
andd
i esel
.
C ar
ma nuf
actur
ersa
red e vel
opi
n gs
e ver
al
st
rategi
es
for t
he st
orage of
hydrogen.
× H ydrogenc
a nb
es to r
eda
sal
iqui
du
n der
pressur
e. Thi
si
ni
t
sel
f cr
eatesl
ogi
sti
cal
probl
ems .
E ven
un der
p r
essureav
ery
lowt
emp erat
urei
srequi
reda
ndl
iqui
da
n dl
i
quidh
ydrogenw
ill
n eedt
obes tor
ed
i
n
g i
a nt
`
thermos f
lask'
t
o prevent
i
t
fr
om boil
ing.
× H ydrogenc
a nb
ea d sor
b edo
n t
ot
hes
u r
faceo
f
asoli
dma
t er
ial
i
nas imil
ar
wa y
that
ac
atal
yst
isable
to hold
ga ses
to
it
s sur
face.
× H ydrogen can be
absorbed wit
hin
some
soli
d mater
ial
s.

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Page
192
193
Limitations of hydrogen fuel cells
There a r
e l
og i
stic
a l
pr
oblems in t
h e de vel
opme nt
and use
of
hydrogen
fuel
cel
ls.
× T hel ar
g e scal
es
toragea n dt
ransportat
iono
f hydr
ogenp
o sesp
roblems.…read more

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