HY4 England and Wales 1880-1980

Social Impact of World War II, Consequences of WW2, including the Beveridge Report, establishment of the NHS and the Welfare State

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: B
  • Created on: 19-05-10 08:39
Preview of HY4 England and Wales 1880-1980

First 495 words of the document:

Synoptic HY4 Notes
The Rise of the Labour Party:
The rise of Labour stemmed, fundamentally, from the harsh working and living
conditions of late 19th century Britain.
In 1884 intellectuals formed the Social Democratic Federation, the Socialist League and
Fabians Society, which varied in character from the revolutionary to the reformist.
The workers themselves formed trade unions: not only the old exclusive craft unions,
closed to all but highly skilled and well paid artisans, but also the inclusive "new unions"
formed in the late 1880s and composed of unskilled workers.
By 1900 there were 2 million trade union members.
In 1908 even the Miners' Federation voted to affiliate to the Labour Party.
In the same year, Ramsay MacDonald became party leader
The Social Impact of WWI:
The impact of war was positive because to win, the Government had to bring about a
thorough reorganisation of all aspects of British Society.
New ministries took charge of shipping, food production, labour, pensions, national
service, food and information.
In 1918 the Representation of the People Act began the process of extending the vote
to women which mean they would have political power to demand social reform.
Domestic policy has replaced foreign policy as the key issue for politicians.
The war saw the powers of the state grow hinted at by social and political reform. State
interference was piecemeal but by 1918 the degree of state control was striking and it
was generally accepted as temporary due to exceptional circumstances.
The government intervened in the lives of British people more than ever and it was
acceptable to consider such intervention not only normal but beneficial.
WWI brought about a turning point in women's employment and social and economic
position. Martin Pugh points out women working during the war had to leave once
armistice was declared. The Sex Disqualification Act of 1919 allowed women into
professional work and by 1918 women felt the war had transformed their lives and
continued to do so.
The most immediate change was to deprive women of war work and force them into
domesticity. The women who helped win the war seemed to confirm the myth of the
apathetic, docile woman worker lacking in ambition and a threat to a man's wages.
Arthur Marwick suggests one of the war impacts was the participation by groups now
usually valued by the Government, so leading to unguided social change.
The war led the politicians to think in terms of rewards for the working classes. Lloyd
George spoke of building Homes for Heroes.
The Addison Housing Act of 1919 encouraged the building of council houses
throughout the country but the scheme had to be abandoned, over 200,000 were built
and the Education Act of 1918 which introduced compulsory education to the age of

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

The working class benefited from the war years. Wage rates doubled, working weeks
were averagely 7 hours less and food rationing meant many could afford meat for the
first time.
Main impact of the war was to improve conditions for the industrial working class and
women who were rewarded. John Stevenson said the war "produced important
developments in the social sphere just as it did in the fields of economic and politics.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

The early years of the 1930s were blighted by the Wall Street Crash and consequent
Although the 30s were not as bad as the stock images of the hunger marchers and dole
queues suggest, there can be no doubt they were indeed bad in certain areas, especially
in industrialised South Wales.
Diet and health suffered. Infant mortality rates were at an alarming level and rickets and
anaemia became more common as many families couldn't afford to eat properly.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Impact of WWII:
Arthur Marwick suggests that one of the main impacts of war was the participation by
groups not usually valued by governments so leading to unguided social change.
The main impact of the war was to improve conditions for the industrial working class
and women who were rewarded by the introduction of full employment and the welfare
state.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

Today the ideas that were outlined in the Beveridge Report are still considered to
provide the foundation of the modern welfare state.
Beveridge report was designed to counter the 5 giants and Beveridge recommended the
establishment of an NHS, NI, family allowances and stressed the importance of full
Although not as Beveridge wished, the measures were adopted and formed the basis of
British postwar welfare state. Family allowances were enacted in 1945 and NI and the
NHS in 1946, full employment became Government policy.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

Christian message unless such a message was deemed
to be inappropriate for a particular school or group of children.
The amendment specified the act of worship could take place in classes, rather than the
previous system of conducting worship assemblies.
Labour Government 194551 ­ Key Politicians:
Labour's victory in 1945 stunned many contemporaries. Historians have sought to
explain what happened in the biggest lurch to the political left ever seen.…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

Flat rate contributions in return for flat rate benefits, with unemployment and sickness
benefits, maternity grants and allowances, allowances for dependents, retirement
pensions and £20 death grant.
The final plank in the vessel, the National Assistance Act redesigned the means tested
safety net to be stretched below the minimum platform of insurance. Top priority in
election polls was housing.
Full employment was already a reality in 1948 and would remain so for a quarter of a
century.…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Here's a taster:

The cost of the NHS exploded with medicines costing more than expected. To try and
combat the government begun to charge for glasses and false teeth, in 1952 adding the
costs of prescriptions and dental treatment.
However few people wanted to turn the clock back. In 1956 90% of the population
thought the NHS was a good service.
The social security scheme also ran into difficulties. TO begin with, the cash benefits
were too small for many to live on, and were flat rate.…read more


No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all resources »