How to evaluate (GRAVE)

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  • Created on: 09-01-13 11:20
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How to evaluate
Generalizability
Reliability
Application
Validity
Ethics
Generalizability
Refer to Target Population and sampling method
If not representative, sample cannot be generalised to the target population
Hard to Generalise from animals to humans as there are important differences
Eg. Milgrams study. The volunteers where from newspaper people who like to volunteer and so the result do
not cover the whole population
Reliability
If the study is hard to replicate (do again) then it cannot be shown to be reliable
Hard for case studies (unique individuals)
Easier for experiment ( Carefully controlled)
results may be similar to original results
Application
If findings from a study can be used to help society in a real-life application eg. Milgrams work on the
`Germans are not different' issue, then this makes the study more useful which is an evaluation point
Have to say how it is useful
Validity
There are two types External and Internal
External, Milgrams Study was Artificial in many ways so it was not valid.
But field experiments like Hofling et al Are more vaild
If a study can be seen to be about real life than it is more useful ­ or if it is not about real life it is not useful
^ It lacks mundane realism ­ `not real life'
Ethics
A study can be evaluated by considering how ethical or unethical it was.
Milgrams procedure can be considered unethical with regards to deceit, informed consent, right to
withdraw.
But it can also be seen as ethical regarding competence and debriefing
To get Mark show how these guidelines links to milgrams work
18th September 2012

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