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Social Approach
Hypotheses are specific predictions about what you expect to find after analysing data.
This is known as an alternative hypothesis. The alternative to this is the null
hypothesis (no effect will be found expect by chance)
Types of Questions and Data
Different types of questions are used to collect different types of data in a survey.
Open questions can be answered in any way the pps chooses. This collects
qualitative data (words).
Closed questions limit the response of the pps.…read more

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Social Approach
Questionnaires... are normally in a written format with no flexibility about the
questions. However, there may be space to write comments. The questions are
most likely closed and may possibly have a Likerttype scale (on a scale of 1 5).
When designing surveys you should consider:
Wording the pps will understand. This can be checked by producing a pilot
study on a few people.
Whether the questions will be asked face to face or written.…read more

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Social Approach
Protection = pps should be protected from psychological and physiological
Main Study: MILGRAM'S (1963) Obedience Study
Aim: To investigate the circumstances under which people obey a person who tells
them to harm someone else. This relates to the Nazis and Jews during World War II.
Research method: Laboratory Experiment Location: Yale University
Participants: All male from small American town (New Haven). 40 voluntary paper
advertised sampled paid volunteers.
1. Pps are paired with someone they thought was another learner (confederate).…read more

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Social Approach
47.5% went up to 450 volts in a rundown office building
20.5% went up to 450 volts when orders were gave over the phone
Milgram GRAVE
Generalizability: This study was voluntary sampled, so those who participated
may be highly motivated which does not apply for everyone. However, there was
a high popularity validity of 40 pps at a large age range. It may also be
generalizable to those who live in New Haven.…read more

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Social Approach
Generalizability: This study is generalizable because of the crosscultural
impact, making it suitable in every country. However, some may argue due to the
voluntary sampling and the money attracting certain people.
Reliability: This then makes it reliable, as the method can be repeated. The
experiment also avoids bias, as conclusions can be drawn. The validity of the
laboratory experiment limits the real life of the study. It is also unethical as the
money makes pps feel as if they are contracted.…read more

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Social Approach
4. The experiment ended when the either: the experiment went over 10 minutes,
when the nurse went to issue the medicine, went to get advice or became
upset and refused.
Questionnaire: 10/12 graduate nurses and all 21 students said they would have not of
given the medication.
Experimental Situation: 21/22 started to give the medication. When debriefing, only 11
nurses were aware of the dosage limit and all admitted they should not have followed
the orders which went against the hospital policy.…read more

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Social Approach
Generalizability: The boys came from white protestant families. This therefore
cannot be generalised as it does not represent a wide population.
Reliability: The field experiment had some controls and manipulations,
therefore not 100% natural.
Applicability: There study was high in ecological validity as it was a field
Validity: The experiment lacked in population validity.
Ethics: The boys did not know they were part of an experiment, therefore had no
right to withdraw, however, they were fully debriefed.…read more


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