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Social Approach




Contents

Defining the approach........................................................................pg2

Methodology.....................................................................................pg3

Main study: Milgram ..........................................................................pg5

Crosscultural: Meeus........................................................................pg7

Hofling's Nurses................................................................................pg8

Sherif's Robbers Cave .......................................................................pg9

Agency Theory (Milgram) and Obedience.............................................pg10

Social Identity Theory and Prejudice....................................................pg11

Key Issue: Abu Ghraib and Football Violence.......................................pg12




































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Social Approach






What is the SOCIAL APPROACH?

Social psychology is `the study of how our behaviour is influenced by the presence,
attitudes and actions of other people'.

KEY ASSUMPTIONS

1. Individuals and groups affect our behaviour.

This is to do with the interactions between you and other people. For example,…

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METHODOLOGY

Hypotheses

Hypotheses are specific predictions about what you expect to find after analysing data.
This is known as an alternative hypothesis. The alternative to this is the null
hypothesis (no effect will be found expect by chance)

Types of Questions and Data

Different types of questions are…

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Questionnaires... are normally in a written format with no flexibility about the
questions. However, there may be space to write comments. The questions are
most likely closed and may possibly have a Likerttype scale (on a scale of 1 5).



When designing surveys you should consider:

Wording the…

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Protection = pps should be protected from psychological and physiological
harm.







Main Study: MILGRAM'S (1963) Obedience Study

Aim: To investigate the circumstances under which people obey a person who tells
them to harm someone else. This relates to the Nazis and Jews during World War II.

Research method:…

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Variations:

47.5% went up to 450 volts in a rundown office building

20.5% went up to 450 volts when orders were gave over the phone









Milgram GRAVE

Generalizability: This study was voluntary sampled, so those who participated
may be highly motivated which does not apply for everyone. However,…

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Cross Cultural Study: MEEUS (1985)

Aim: This study was carried out in the Netherlands 20 years after Milgram. It was to test
obedience where harm would be done but in a more up to date way.

Research method: Laboratory Experiment Location: Holland
University

Participants: 39 pps, both male…

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Generalizability: This study is generalizable because of the crosscultural
impact, making it suitable in every country. However, some may argue due to the
voluntary sampling and the money attracting certain people.

Reliability: This then makes it reliable, as the method can be repeated. The
experiment also avoids bias,…

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4. The experiment ended when the either: the experiment went over 10 minutes,
when the nurse went to issue the medicine, went to get advice or became
upset and refused.

Results:

Questionnaire: 10/12 graduate nurses and all 21 students said they would have not of
given the medication.…

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GRAVE

Generalizability: The boys came from white protestant families. This therefore
cannot be generalised as it does not represent a wide population.

Reliability: The field experiment had some controls and manipulations,
therefore not 100% natural.

Applicability: There study was high in ecological validity as it was a field…

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