How does immunity develop?

AS OCR F212 biology.

Health and disease. Good luck for your exam. 

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HOW DOES IMMUNITY DEVELOP?
PRIMARY RESPONSE AND SECONDARY RESPONSE
Primary response is the first invasion of a pathogen.
Secondary response is when subsequent invasions take place.
IMMUNITY
PRIMARY RESPONSE
1. Pathogens enter the body.
2. There are few lymphocytes in the body.
3. Pathogens release toxins and the body shows symptoms of a disease.
4. Pathogens are engulfed by phagocytes.
5. Phagocytosis takes place and the pathogen breaks down.
6. Antigens are placed on antigen presenting cells, e.g. macrophages.
7. T+B lymphocytes attack the pathogen.
8. Memory cells are produced after differentiation.
SECONDARY RESPONSE
1. Pathogens enter the body.
2. They are recognised by lymphocytes and macrophages.
3. Cloning of lymphocytes: B lymphocytes produce plasma and memory cells.
4. Antibodies are produced.
5. Antibodies attach to antigens.
6. Pathogen is neutralised.
7. Phagocyte engulfs.
TYPES OF IMMUNITY
ACTIVE-NATURAL IMMUNITY
An immune response has been stimulated to make a certain antibody with the help of memory cells that immunity can occur
once the body has been through the disease. This occurs naturally, the production of lymphocytes doesn't require artificial
induction and it provides lifetime immunity, it is active because the body has to actively fight the disease.

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ACTIVE-ARTIFICIAL IMMUNITY
This is developed by a vaccination; the vaccine consists of an inactive pathogen. This is active because the body produces
memory cells and tries to destroy which allows the person to be immune for a lifetime.
PASSIVE-NATURAL IMMUNITY
Ready-made antibodies that have already been produced are transferred to the baby from the mother via the placenta and
breast milk. This provides lifetime immunity but it is passive because the body doesn't have to actively do anything.…read more

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