revision cards - hormones (communication and homeostasis)

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Hormones LP
The endocrine system
2 communication systems ­ nervous and endocrine.
Chemical signal is the hormone which is transported by blood circulation
Exocrine system Endocrine system
Secretes into duct Hormone secreted directly into blood
Secretes digestive enzymes Secretes hormones
Duct carries secretion away No ducts
Pancreas Pancreas
Eg salivary glands Eg ovaries
Types of hormone
Protein + peptide + derivative of amino acids ­ adrenaline, insulin, glucagon
Steroid hormone ­ lipid based eg sex hormones
Protein hormones do not enter the cell because they are not soluble in the cell

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Hormones LP
Amino acid derivative
Cause an effect inside the cell without entering the cell
Adrenaline receptor :
o Outer surface of the cell
o Complementary shape to adrenaline
Associated with an enzyme on the inner surface of the membrane ­ adenyl
Adrenal glands
Medulla :
Secreted in response to stress
Most cells have adrenaline receptors
Hormone = adrenaline
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Hormones LP
Effect of adrenaline on the body
Body hair erects
Increased breathing rate
Decreased digestion
Body temperature change
Increase in sweat
Increase in awareness and senses
Pupils dilate
Vasoconstriction ­ increase BP
Increase heart stroke volume
Stimulate conversion of glycogen to glucose
Cortex ­ uses cholesterol to produce steroid hormones
Mineralocortioids ­ control conc.…read more

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Hormones LP
Glucocorticoids ­ helps to control metabolism of carbs and protein in liver ­ cortisol
effect Reason
Relax smooth muscles in bronchioles Increase surface area to absorb more O2
Increase heart rate Transport more blood ­ O2 ­ increase
respiration ­ muscles work better
Increase stroke volume of heart As above
Cause general vasoconstriction to raise BP Blood supply to specific areas of the body
Stimulate conversion of glycogen to Provides more energy through respiration
Dilate pupils Improve vision
Increase mental awareness Make…read more

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Hormones LP
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Hormones LP
Pancreas ­ small, below the stomach, contains endocrine and exocrine glands
Function ­ secrete digestive enzymes and hormones
Exocrine functions:
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Hormones LP
Manufacture digestive enzymes
Cells in small groups surrounded by tiny tubules
Tubules join to form pancreatic duct ­ carries enzymes to small intestine
Enzymes ­ amylase (carbs), trypsinogen (protein), lipase (fats).
Sodium hydrogen carbonate ­ alkaline to balance pH to prevent enzymes denaturing.…read more

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Hormones LP
More glucose is converted into fats
More glucose used in respiration
Cellular response to glucagon
Converts glycogen into glucose ­ glycogenolysis
Used more fatty acids in respiration
Produce glucose by converting amino acids and fat into
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Hormones LP
Type one diabetes Type two diabetes
cells destroyed/damaged cell function ­ body cells do not respond
to insulin
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Hormones LP
Develops at a young age Associated with obesity
Insulin-dependant Develops with age ­ response to insulin
Result of auto immune response Non-insulin dependant
Body cannot store excess glucose as Levels of insulin secreted decline
Result of viral attack Being Asian/afro-Caribbean
Body cannot make enough insulin Insulin receptors on surface of liver and
muscle cells decline
Body can still produce insulin
Term Definition
Glucose A monosaccharide important for cell respiration
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