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Hormones LP
The endocrine system
2 communication systems ­ nervous and endocrine.
Chemical signal is the hormone which is transported by blood circulation
Exocrine system Endocrine system
Secretes into duct Hormone secreted directly into blood
Secretes digestive enzymes Secretes hormones
Duct carries secretion away No ducts
Pancreas Pancreas
Eg salivary…

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Hormones LP
Adrenaline
Amino acid derivative
Cause an effect inside the cell without entering the cell
Adrenaline receptor :
o Outer surface of the cell
o Complementary shape to adrenaline
Associated with an enzyme on the inner surface of the membrane ­ adenyl
cyclise

Adrenal glands

Medulla :
Secreted in…

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Hormones LP
Effect of adrenaline on the body
Body hair erects
Increased breathing rate
Decreased digestion
Body temperature change
Increase in sweat
Increase in awareness and senses
Pupils dilate
Vasoconstriction ­ increase BP
Increase heart stroke volume
Stimulate conversion of glycogen to glucose

Cortex ­ uses cholesterol to produce steroid…

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Hormones LP
Glucocorticoids ­ helps to control metabolism of carbs and protein in liver ­ cortisol



effect Reason
Relax smooth muscles in bronchioles Increase surface area to absorb more O2
Increase heart rate Transport more blood ­ O2 ­ increase
respiration ­ muscles work better
Increase stroke volume of heart…

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Hormones LP




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Hormones LP




Pancreas ­ small, below the stomach, contains endocrine and exocrine glands
Function ­ secrete digestive enzymes and hormones

Exocrine functions:

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Hormones LP
Manufacture digestive enzymes
Cells in small groups surrounded by tiny tubules
Tubules join to form pancreatic duct ­ carries enzymes to small intestine
Enzymes ­ amylase (carbs), trypsinogen (protein), lipase (fats).
Sodium hydrogen carbonate ­ alkaline to balance pH to prevent enzymes denaturing.

Endocrine function (islets of langerhans)…

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Hormones LP
More glucose is converted into fats
More glucose used in respiration



Cellular response to glucagon
Converts glycogen into glucose ­ glycogenolysis
Used more fatty acids in respiration
Produce glucose by converting amino acids and fat into




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Hormones LP




Type one diabetes Type two diabetes
cells destroyed/damaged cell function ­ body cells do not respond
to insulin



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Hormones LP

Genetic

Develops at a young age Associated with obesity
Insulin-dependant Develops with age ­ response to insulin
declines
Result of auto immune response Non-insulin dependant
Body cannot store excess glucose as Levels of insulin secreted decline
glycogen
Result of viral attack Being Asian/afro-Caribbean
Body cannot make enough insulin…

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