Chemistry Revision GCSE

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Chemistry Revision

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Hazard Symbols

 

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States of Matter

As heat is added to a solid the particles start to vibrate more and more vigorously. Eventually when it reaches its melting point the particles have enough energy to break their bonds and melt into a liquid. As it is cooled energy is taken away so the particles vibrate less and if a liquid or gas the bonds become stronger and so it freezes or condenses. In the case of a solid it becomes less flexible.

Particles in a solid vibrate around their equilibrium but don’t move and keep a rigid shape with their bonds intact. Liquid particles are similar but have more energy so vibrate faster and have more fluidity. Gas particles have no bonds and move around very quickly

 

Structure of an atom

 

Particle

Where?

Mass

Charge

Proton

Nucleus

1

1+

Neutron

Nucleus

1

0

Electron

Energy Levels

1/1840

1-

Atomic/Proton Number – Number of protons (small number)

Mass Number – Sum of protons and neutrons

Mass Num – Atomic Num = Number of neutrons


Number of protons = number of electrons

 


ELECTRONS

·         Held on energy levels

·         First level can only hold 2 electrons

·         After the first the rest of the energy levels can hold 8

·         Electrons heavily influence the chemical properties of an element

Electrolytes are substances that conduct electricity when molten or in solution (ionic)

 

ISOTOPES

·         An atom with the same number of protons but a different of neutrons

Relative Isotopic Masses

 

E.g 75% of Cl is 35 type. 25% is Cl 37

(0.75x35) + (0.25x37) = 35.5

IONS

·         An element that has gained or loss electrons to complete its outer shell

N.B Elements are arranged in order of Atomic Mass (Number of protons)

 

 

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Reactivity Series

 

 


Mnemonic:  KNCMACZFSPHCAAP

 

 Kangaroos Never Call Me A Cowardly Zebra For Several Plausible Honest Causes As Accurately Portrayed

 

 

 

 

TESTS

Gas Tests:

·         Hydrogen – Lit splint gives a squeaky ‘pop’

·         Carbon Dioxide – Turns Limewater cloudy

·         Oxygen – Re-lights a glowing splint

·         Ammonia – Turns red litmus blue (Smells distinctively)

·         Chlorine – Green gas bleaches blue damp litmus

Water:

·         Anhydrous copper sulphate goes from white to blue

·         Cobalt Chloride goes from pink to blue

Flame (Cations) Tests:

·         Sodium – Golden Yellow

·         Lithium – Crimson Red

·         Calcium – Brick Red

·         Potassium – Lilac

Sodium Hydroxide (Cations) Test:

·         Aluminium – White – CLEAR IN EXCESS

·         Copper – Blue

·        

PRECIPITATES

Iron (II) – Green

·         Iron (III) – Rusty Reddish Brown

·         Magnesium – White

·         Calcium - White

Silver Nitrate:

·         Chloride – White

·         Bromide – Cream

·        

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