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The heart is the major The left side of the
organ of the circulatory Superior heart receives oxygenated
VENA blood from the lungs via the
system CAVA AORTA PULMONARY VEINS
It is a fist-sized muscular
pump consisting of The left side of the
four chambers heart pumps oxygenated
blood out into
The human heart the body's arteries via
recirculates the entire the AORTA
blood volume (5 dm3)
every minute when Deoxygenated blood
the body is at rest PULMONARY returns to the right side
ARTERY of the heart via the
The ability of the VENA CAVA
heart to perform such
work is due to the Deoxygenated blood
presence of specialised CORONARY is pumped to the
cardiac muscle in ARTERIES lungs via the
its walls PULMONARY
ARTERY
The job of the heart is to Heart muscle receives
pump blood around two its own supply of blood
separate circuits Inferior
VENA
from the CORONARY
CAVA ARTERIES…read more

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Cardiac muscle tissue consists of branched, faintly striated fibres (cells), each of
which contains a centrally placed nucleus
Thickenings of
the plasma
membrane
between
individual
cardiac muscle
cells form
intercalated
discs
Cardiac muscle tissue forms networks due to its branching structure
When one muscle fibre is electrically excited, an impulse is quickly
transmitted to neighbouring fibres such that impulses spread in all directions
when cardiac muscle is stimulated…read more

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This photomicrograph of cardiac muscle tissue shows the branching nature
of the fibres, the intercalated discs and the nuclei
Nuclei
Intercalated
disc…read more

Slide 5

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The mammalian heart is
a muscular pump that consists
of four chambers
Two upper chambers, called the
atria, are thin walled cavities that
receive blood from veins
Two lower chambers, called the
ventricles, are thick walled cavities
that receive blood from the atria and
pump blood away from the heart
The cavity of the heart is
divided completely by a Right Left
partition called the atrium atrium
SEPTUM
The muscular walls of the
heart are referred to as the
myometrium and consist of
specialised cardiac muscle Right Left
cells ventricle ventricle
The thicker walled structure of the left
ventricle is a consequence of the distance Septum
over which it is required to pump blood…read more

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The direction of blood flow through the heart is maintained be valves
Between the right atrium and
the right ventricle is the
TRICUSPID VALVE
This valve prevents the backflow Aorta
of blood from the right ventricle
to the right atrium
Between the left atrium and Pulmonary
the left ventricle is the Artery
BICSUPID VALVE OR
MITRAL VALVE
This valve prevents the
backflow of blood from
Right Left
the left ventricle to
atrium atrium
the left atrium
The bicuspid and tricuspid Tricuspid Bicuspid
valve Semilunar or Mitral
valves are collectively valves
known as the valve
ATRIO-VENTRICULAR
VALVES or AV valves Right Left
Pocket-shapes valves known ventricle ventricle
as SEMILUNAR VALVES are
located at the base of the arteries
responsible for transporting
blood away from the heart…read more

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