Halogenoalkanes Revision Notes

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  • Created on: 03-04-16 09:58
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Halogenoalkanes
General formula = C
nH2n+1X
X is a halogen, it's slightly ­ve.
Halogenoalkanes are polar.
The curly arrow shows the movement of the free pair of electrons.
Nucleophile ­ electron donor pair
It replaces X.
:OH = Hydroxide ion and it makes an alcohol
:NH3 = Ammonia and it makes amine
:CN = Cyanide ion and it produces a nitrile
Tertiary halogenoalkanes are more likely to take part in nucleophilic
substitution.

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Elimination Reaction ­
Potassium Hydroxide (alcoholic) + Halogenoalkane Alkane + H2O
KOH acts as a base.
Tertiary halogenoalkanes tend towards elimination.
Ozone Depletion ­
Ozone formed naturally in upper atmosphere, beneficial because absorb UV
radiation.
Cl atoms formed in upper atmosphere when UV causes CCl bonds to break in
CFCs.
Cl catalyses decomposition of ozone and contributes to whole in ozone layer.
Research lead to CFCs being banned and now there's Cl free compunds
instead.…read more

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Overall Equations ­
Cl· + O3
ClO· + O2 and ClO· + O
3
O3 + 2O
2 +Cl·
CH4 + Cl
2
CH3Cl + HCl
Free radical substitution happens in three stages:
1) Initiation
2) Propagation
3) Termination…read more

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