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General formula = C

X is a halogen, it's slightly ­ve.
Halogenoalkanes are polar.
The curly arrow shows the movement of the free pair of electrons.

Nucleophile ­ electron donor pair
It replaces X.

:OH = Hydroxide ion and it makes an alcohol
:NH3 = Ammonia and it…

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Elimination Reaction ­
Potassium Hydroxide (alcoholic) + Halogenoalkane Alkane + H2O

KOH acts as a base.
Tertiary halogenoalkanes tend towards elimination.

Ozone Depletion ­
Ozone formed naturally in upper atmosphere, beneficial because absorb UV
Cl atoms formed in upper atmosphere when UV causes CCl bonds to break in

Page 3

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Overall Equations ­
Cl· + O3
ClO· + O2 and ClO· + O
O3 + 2O
2 +Cl·

CH4 + Cl
CH3Cl + HCl

Free radical substitution happens in three stages:
1) Initiation
2) Propagation
3) Termination


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