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Government and Politics - Unit One and Two.


1.1 Democracy and Political Participation.

1.2 Party Policies and Ideas.

1.3 Elections.

1.4 Pressure Groups.


2.1 The UK Constitution.

2.2 Parliament.

2.3 The Prime Minister and Cabinet.

2.4 The Judiciary…

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1.1 Democracy and Political Participation
Politic refers to the activity of managing the affairs of the state. A state is a
collective name for the institutions that administer a country. A government
means the process of organising the state and giving it political direction.

It can also mean:

Government: in…

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Power is the ability of an individual or an institution to force people to do things,
whether they wish to or not.

Power, authority and sovereignty -
1. Power.
Power means the ability to make other people or groups do what one wants
them to do, even if this is…

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Institution Main Sources of Authority
Parliament. The authority of the House of Lords is
TRADITIONAL. The commons' main authority is by
election, therefore, the people.

The government. Their authority is ELECTIVE.

The monarch. The power of monarchy is limited, so the Crown is

The prime minister. Much of their…

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* law enforcement agencies, including judges, courts, the police and the prison

* the bureaucracy or civil service.

* local authorities and such, which are bodies that exist at sub-central level.

2. Government. Refers either to the activity of governing or the institutions that
make up the central executive.…

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1.1 Democracy and Political Participation -
Democracy is giving the people a choice.

There are two kinds of democracy:

1. Indirect democracy. Choosing someone to make a choice for the people.

2. Direct democracy. Giving the people a choice to do as they wish.

Direct democracy Indirect democracy
Everyone has…

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Examples of the citizen's rights and obligations:

Rights Duties

To be a resident in the state To obey the laws

To vote in free elections To accept the legitimacy of the properly
constituted government
To stand for public office To pay taxes

To be given a fair trial if accused…

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Evidence of lower levels of active participation:
1. Turnout. Elections have been falling as:

Election Year Turnout
1979 76.0%
1983 72.7%
1987 75.3%
1992 77.7%
1997 71.4%
2001 59.4%
2005 61.3%
2010 65.2%

2. Part membership. Has been declining as:

Year Membership of all parties Membership % of total

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The growth of e- or or digital democracy.
E-petitions, petitions that are organised through variety of internet sites.

There are many, such as: online forums, blogs and networks.

E-democracy is a term used to describe various methods by which political
opinion and demands are expressed through the use of the…

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- Makes more votes count and offers more choice to voters.

Why is political participation important?
- We live in an representative democracy where we have given up a role in
decision making, therefore, it is important to represent our views.

- Raises political education of people e.g. referendums raise…


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