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History Notes
Germany 1918-1939…read more

Slide 2

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The Conference and the
Big Three
The conference was dominated by David Lloyd
George, Georges Clemençeau and Woodrow
Wilson, the leaders of Britain, France and America,
often known as the 'Big Three'.
Delegates from 32 countries met in January 1919,
but the conference was dominated by the Big
Three - Lloyd George (Britain), Clemençeau (France)
and Wilson (USA). The delegations made
presentations to them, after which the Big Three
made their decision.…read more

Slide 3

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The Conference and the
Big Three
Lloyd George saved the conference. On 25 March 1919, he
issued the Fontainebleau Memorandum, and persuaded
Clemençeau to agree to the League of Nations and a
more lenient peace treaty that would not destroy
Germany. Then he went to Wilson and persuaded him to
agree to the War Guilt Clause.
The Germans were shown the proposed Treaty of
Versailles. There was no negotiation. The Germans
published a rebuttal, arguing that the treaty was unfair,
but they were ignored. On 28 June 1919, the delegates
met at the Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles, near
Paris, and forced two Germans to sign the treaty.…read more

Slide 4

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The Peace Treaty
The people of Europe wanted lasting peace, and also to make Germany pay for the
damage done, and revenge.
The Germans had expected that the peace treaty would be based on President
Wilson's Fourteen Points. The six key principles of the Fourteen Points were:
Setting up a League of Nations
Self-determination for the people of Europe - the right to rule themselves
Freedom for colonies
Freedom of the seas
Free trade
The Big Three expected to base the peace treaty on the terms of the armistice, which
were much harsher:
German army disbanded, and Germany to give up its navy.
Allied troops to occupy the Rhineland.
Reparation for damage done and war losses.…read more

Slide 5

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Woodrow Wilson's
To end war by creating a League of Nations based
on his Fourteen Points.
To ensure Germany was not destroyed.
Not to blame Germany for the war - he hated the
Guilt Clause.…read more

Slide 6

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Georges Clemeceau's
Revenge and to punish Germany.
To return Alsace-Lorraine to France.
No League of Nations.
An independent Rhineland.
Huge reparations.
To disband the German army so that Germany
would never be strong enough to attack France
again.…read more

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