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Push factors from the Shanty Towns:
Lack of food due to crop failure
Extreme physical conditions in the countryside, e.g. drought and heat
Lack of services
Lack of employment and investment by the government
Labourers being forced off land
Poor living conditions, e.g. open sewers, lack of electricity
Pull Factors
Pull factors are elements of an area which appear attractive to people from other places, pulling people to that area.
Pull factors to the Cities:
Prospect of employment
Possibility of having better housing, health services, education and electricity supply
Prospect of a reliable source of food and water
Possibility of having better living conditions, e.g. sewers, toilets
The government is willing to invest money to improve conditions in the city
The RuralUrban Fringe (Landuse and conflict)
The ruralurban fringe (the area at the edge of a city) has become an increasingly popular area for
economic developments. Competition for land in these areas increased signficantly during the 1990s. The
land is much cheaper here than in the city centre, and many factories that were once in inner city locations
have moved to these areas as their previous locations lacked space for expansion. As well as industrial
estates and residential use, these areas attract shopping centres, business parks and recreation facilities
such as golf courses. The benefits of the ruralurban fringe are set out in the diagram below.

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Conflict at the RuralUrban fringe
Although there is competition for land for economic developments at the ruralurban fringe, there is
increasing pressure from environmental groups to restrict urban sprawl and protect the environment on the
edge of cities from economic pressures. If urban sprawl continues unchecked, many wildlife habitats
would be destroyed. Conservationists and farmers want to protect nature reserves and farmland, and open
space for recreation is required by people living in the nearby urban area.…read more

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Since the 1960s there has been a continuing trend of urban to rural migration, with people leaving cities
and moving into countryside areas, this process is known as counterurbanisation.
Tropical storms form over water that is above 26.5°C in temperature. The warm water heats
the air above it, causing it to rise rapidly. Cooler air from elsewhere rapidly moves in to replace
the rising air and the process starts again.
The rapidly rising moist air, cools as it ascends and forms tall cumulonimbusclouds.…read more




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