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Push factors from the Shanty Towns:

Lack of food due to crop failure

Extreme physical conditions in the countryside, e.g. drought and heat

Lack of services

Lack of employment and investment by the government

Labourers being forced off land

Poor living conditions, e.g. open sewers, lack of electricity

Pull Factors…

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Conflict at the RuralUrban fringe
Although there is competition for land for economic developments at the ruralurban fringe, there is
increasing pressure from environmental groups to restrict urban sprawl and protect the environment on the
edge of cities from economic pressures. If urban sprawl continues unchecked, many wildlife habitats

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Since the 1960s there has been a continuing trend of urban to rural migration, with people leaving cities
and moving into countryside areas, this process is known as counterurbanisation.

Tropical storms form over water that is above 26.5°C in temperature. The warm water heats
the air above it, causing it…





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